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Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein.docx

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Life Science
LIFE 102

Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein • The information content of DNA is in the form of specific sequences of nucleotides • The DNA inherites by an organism leads to specific traits by indicating the synthesis of proteins. • Proteins are the links between genotype and phenotypes. • Gene Expression, the process by which DNA directs protein synthesis, includes two stages: transcription and translation. • In 1909, British physician Archibald Garrod first suggested that genes dictate phenotypes through enzymes that catalyze specific chemical reactions. • He thought symptoms of an inherited disease reflect an inability to synthesize a certain enzyme. • Linking genes to enzymes required understanding that cells synthesize and degrade molecules in a series of steps, a metabolic pathway. • Using crosses, George and Edward identified three classes of arginine- deficient mutants, each lacking a different enzyme necessary for synthesizing arganine. • They developed a one gene- one enzyme hypothesis, which states that each gene dictates production of a specific enzyme. • Some proteins aren’t enzymes, so researchers later revised the hypothesis: one gene one protein • Many proteins are composed of several polypeptides, each of which has its own gene. • RNA is the intermediate between genes and the proteins for which they code. • Transcription is the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA • Transcription produces Messenger RNA (mRNA) • Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA •
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