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LIFE 102 (201)

Genome evolution, homeobox, Hox genes, artificial selection, natural selection, fossil record, evolution of human globin genes, exon duplication/shuffling

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Colorado State University
Life Science
LIFE 102
Louis Bjostad

2 MayConcept 215 Duplication rearrangement and mutation of DNA contribute to genome evolutionThe rate of duplications and inversions seems to have accelerated about 100 million years agoThis coincides with when large dinosaurs went extinct and mammals diversifiedChromosomal rearrangements are thought to contribute to the generation of new speciesSome of the recombination hot spots associated with chromosomal rearrangement are also locations that are associated with diseasesUnequal crossing over during prophase I of meiosis can result in one chromosome with a deletion and another with a duplication of a particular regionTransposable elements can provide sites for crossover between nonsister chromatidsHomeotic Genes Conservation of Developmental GenesHomeotic genes are genes that determine how different regions of the body developHox genes in animals are important for segmentationMADSbox genes in plants are involved in flower developmentHomeoboxMolecular analysis of the homeotic genes in Drosophila has shown that they all include a sequence called a homeoboxRelated homeobox sequences have been found in regulatory genes of yeasts plants and even prokaryotesHomeobox genes code for a domain that allows a protein to bind to DNA and to function as a transcription regulatorArrangement of Hox genes on the chromosomeGenes at one end of the chromosome tend to code for body parts at one end of the whole organismGenes in the middle of the chromosome tend to code for body parts in the middle of the whole organism
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