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LIFE 102 (201)

Biological species concept, speciation, reproductive isolation, definitions of species, allopatric/sympatric speciation

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Colorado State University
Life Science
LIFE 102
Louis Bjostad

4 MaySpeciation the origin of new species is at the focal point of evolutionary theoryEvolutionary theory must explain how new species originate and how populations evolveMicroevolution consists of adaptations that evolve within a population confined to one gene poolMacroevolution refers to evolutionary change above the species levelConcept 241 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolationSpecies is a Latin words meaning kind or appearanceBiologists compare morphology physiology biochemistry and DNA sequences when grouping organismsThe Biological Species ConceptThe biological species concept states that a species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable fertile offspring they do not breed successfully with other populationsGene flow between populations holds the phenotype of a population togetherReproductive IsolationReproductive isolation is the existence of biological factors barriers that impede two species from producing viable fertile offspringHybrids are the offspring of crosses between different speciesReproductive isolation can be classified by whether factors act before or after fertilizationPrezygotic barriers block fertilization from occurring byImpeding different species from attempting to matePreventing the successful completion of matingHindering fertilization if mating is successfulHabitat isolation Two species encounter each other rarely or not at all because they occupy different habitats even though not isolated by physical barriersTemporal isolation Species that breed at different times of the day different seasons or different years cannot mix their gametes
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