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LIFE 102 (201)

Histone modifications, DNA methylation, epigenetics, transcription factors, coordinately controlled genes, post-transcriptional regulation, effects on mRNAs, differential gene expression

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Life Science
LIFE 102
Louis Bjostad

20 AprilFinal is not cumulativeHistone ModificationsIn histone acetylation acetyl groups are attached to positively charged lysines in histones tailsThis loosens chromatin structure thereby promoting the initiation of transcriptionThe addition of methyl groups methylation can condense chromatinThe addition of phosphate groups phosphorylation next to a methylated amino acid can loosen chromatinThe histone code hypothesis proposes that specific combinations of modifications help determine chromatin configuration and influence transcriptionDNA MethylationDNA methylation the addition of methyl groups to certain bases in DNA is associated with reduced transcription in some speciesDNA methylation can cause longterm inactivation of genes in cellular differentiationIn genomic imprinting methylation regulates expression of either the maternal or paternal alleles of certain genes at the start of developmentEpigenetic InheritanceAlthough the chromatin modifications just discussed do not alter DNA sequence they may be passed to future generations of cellsThe inheritance of traits transmitted by mechanisms not directly involving the nucleotide sequence is called epigenetic inheritanceRegulation of Transcription InitiationChromatinmodifying enzymes provide initial control of gene expression by making a region of DNA either more or less able to bind the transcription machineryOrganization of a Typical Eukaryotic Gene
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