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LIFE 102 (201)

Law of independent assortment, Mendelian inheritance, monohybrid crosses, degrees of dominance, Tay-Sachs disease, multiple alleles, pleiotrophy, epistasis, polygenic inheritance

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Life Science
LIFE 102
Louis Bjostad

30 MarchThe Law of Independent AssortmentMendel derived the law of segregation by following a single characterThe F offspring produced in this cross were monohybrids individuals that are 1heterozygous for one characterA cross between such heterozygotes is called a monohybrid crossMendel identified his second law of inheritance by following two characters at the same timeCrossing two truebreeding parents differing in two characters produces dihybrids in the F generation heterozygous for both characters1A dihybrid cross a cross between F dihybrids can determine whether two characters 1are transmitted to offspring as a package or independentlyUsing a dihybrid cross Mendel developed the law of independent assortmentThe law of independent assortment states that each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formationStrictly speaking this law applies only to genes on different nonhomologous chromosomesGenes located near each other on the same chromosome tend to be inherited togetherConcept 142 The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritanceMendels laws of segregation and independent assortment reflect the rules of probabilityWhen tossing a coin the outcome of one toss has no impact on the outcome of the next tossIn the same way the alleles of one gene segregate into gametes independently of another genes allelesThe Multiplication and Addition Rules Applied to Monohybrid CrossesThe multiplication rule states that the probability that two or more independent events will occur together is the product of their individual probabilitiesProbability in an F monohybrid cross can be determined using the multiplication rule1Segregation in a heterozygous plant is like flipping a coin Each gamete has achance of carrying the dominant allele and achance of carrying the recessive allele
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