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LIFE 210 (38)

Bonds, water, functional groups

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Life Science
LIFE 210
Paul Laybourn

24 August Earth’s crust is mainly oxygen, silicon, calcium Cells are mainly hydrogen, calcium, oxygen, nitrogen, potassium, sulfur Valence electrons determine chemical properties Electronegativity: O > N > C = S > H = P Determines e sharing in covalent bonds Types of Chemical Bonds Covalent – sharing Ionic – give up or accept, form ions, form ionic compounds Polarity of Covalent Bonds Equal sharing – non polar bond Unequal sharing – polar bond Partial + and – If number of electrons associated with an atom is reduced, it is oxidized. If number is increased, it is reduced. Water – Key Properties Polar, 2 lone pairs (dipolar) Oxygen is more electronegative Hydrogen bond - + δ of O attracted to δ of other molecule’s H H switches from one molecule to another Hydronium (H O )3and hydroxyl (OH) formed- Hydronium is a weak acid, hydroxyl is conjugate base pH = -log [H ] H usually is actually H3O+ Scale from 1 to 14 Covalent Bonds and Carbon Valency of 4 Forms 4 covalent bonds Tetrahedral bonding geometry Bonding with other C → chains Side groups or functional groups Take up free electrons from C Branching/rings can form instead of chains All single bonds – tetrahedral, free rotation Double bond – planar, rotation restricted Resonance – where single & double bonds lie Homonuclear bonds C – C (same atoms) Nonpolar Stronger Heteronuclear bonds Polar Weak
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