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LIFE 210 (38)
Lecture

Bonds, water, functional groups

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Department
Life Science
Course
LIFE 210
Professor
Paul Laybourn
Semester
Fall

Description
24 August Earth’s crust is mainly oxygen, silicon, calcium Cells are mainly hydrogen, calcium, oxygen, nitrogen, potassium, sulfur Valence electrons determine chemical properties Electronegativity: O > N > C = S > H = P Determines e sharing in covalent bonds Types of Chemical Bonds Covalent – sharing Ionic – give up or accept, form ions, form ionic compounds Polarity of Covalent Bonds Equal sharing – non polar bond Unequal sharing – polar bond Partial + and – If number of electrons associated with an atom is reduced, it is oxidized. If number is increased, it is reduced. Water – Key Properties Polar, 2 lone pairs (dipolar) Oxygen is more electronegative Hydrogen bond - + δ of O attracted to δ of other molecule’s H H switches from one molecule to another Hydronium (H O )3and hydroxyl (OH) formed- Hydronium is a weak acid, hydroxyl is conjugate base pH = -log [H ] H usually is actually H3O+ Scale from 1 to 14 Covalent Bonds and Carbon Valency of 4 Forms 4 covalent bonds Tetrahedral bonding geometry Bonding with other C → chains Side groups or functional groups Take up free electrons from C Branching/rings can form instead of chains All single bonds – tetrahedral, free rotation Double bond – planar, rotation restricted Resonance – where single & double bonds lie Homonuclear bonds C – C (same atoms) Nonpolar Stronger Heteronuclear bonds Polar Weak
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