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LIFE 210 (38)

ATP, glycolysis, TCA cycle, fermentation

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Life Science
LIFE 210
Paul Laybourn

26 September Introduction Types of Metabolism (metabolic pathways) Catabolic Nutrient degradation (oxidation) Produce ATP Anabolic Biosynthesis (reduction) Require/use ATP Amphibolic Pathways that can do both Oxidation and Reduction of Cellular Molecules Oxidation – loss of e - Reduction – gain of e - ATP – Why is it a “high energy” molecule? ATP + H 2 ↔ ADP + Pi + H + Intrinsic Property - ΔG°’ ΔG° - chemical standard conditions (1M everything, 298 K) H+¿ ¿ K eq [ADP][Pi]¿ ¿ ΔG° = 2.4 kcal/mol ΔG°’ – biochemical std conditions ([H O2 = 56 M; [H ] = 10 M or pH 7; 310 K) −7 [ADP][Pi][10 ] K eq= [ATP] ΔG°’ = -7.6 kcal/mol System Property – K ΔG rxn ΔG°’ + RT lnK [ADP][Pi] -3 -5 K = [ATP] = 10 to 2 x 10 RT lnK = -.43 to -6.7 kcal/mole ΔG rxn -12 to -14.3 kcal/mole [ADP] Kidney cell: [ ATP] = 1/10 = 10 -1 [ADP] Muscle cell: [ ATP] = 1/500 = 2 x 10-3 -2 [Pi] = 10 M ATP–hydrolysis Coupled Reactions Examples (biosynthesis) ADP + Pi → ATP A.A. to proteins ATPs to DNA Cell, organelle movement All have a +ΔG rxn NAD(P)H in reduction/oxidation Used to drive things Electron transport chain Coenzyme A is another activated molecule Is an acetyl group carrier Coenzyme A + Acetate → Acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA transfers Acetyl group for fatty acid biosynthesis and as a post-translational modification on proteins Metabolism consists of pathways of reactions Catalyzed by enzymes Nutrients are used to obtain building blocks and to
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