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Nuclear pore complexes, Ran GTPase, protein transport into mitochondria

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Colorado State University
Life Science
LIFE 210
Paul Laybourn

17 October Nuclear pore complexes perforate the nuclear envelope 125 million daltons, composed of 30 different proteins which are present in multiple copies and arranged in octagonal symmetry Goes through outer and inner membrane The size cut-off to free diffusion through the NPC is 60,000 daltons Proteins such as DNA polymerases cannot diffuse passively through the NPC Requirement for active transport The function of a nuclear localization signal Fully folded proteins can be transported Signal can be located almost anywhere in the protein Because nuclear localization signals are not cleaved off, nuclear proteins can be imported repeatedly, for example after mitosis when nucleus reassembles Nuclear import receptors There are several receptors that bind specific nuclear localization signals They bind both to the cargo protein and to NPC proteins (FG repeats) The Ran GTPase imposes directionality on transport through NPCs Nuclear import requires energy: hydrolysis of GTP by the GTPase Ran There is a gradient of two conformational forms of Ran (GDP or G
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