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Signaling pathways, extracellular signaling molecules, cell surface receptors

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Colorado State University
Life Science
LIFE 210
Paul Laybourn

26 October General model for a signaling pathway Communication between cells is mediated mainly by extracellular signaling molecules Extracellular signal molecule → receptor protein → intracellular signaling proteins → effector proteins Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a well-studied model system They are unicellular eukaryotes but they communicate extensively Example: mating Animals have more complex signaling systems but they are similar between different species (worms, flies, and mammals) Extracellular signaling molecules bind to specific receptors Different kinds of signaling molecules: proteins, small peptides, amino acids, nucleotides, steroids, retinoids, fatty acid derivatives, &c. Exocytosis Receptors in the target cell bind the signal molecules and initiate a response Extracellular signal molecules can act over short or long distances Long range signaling by endocrine cells and neurons Synaptic signaling is fast and precise. Molecules in local high concentration Endocrine signaling is relatively slow. Molecules diluted Extracellular signals can act slowly or rapidly to change the behavior of a target cell Changes in proteins already present can be fast Cells are programmed to respond to a combination of extracellul
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