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Life Science (261)
LIFE 210 (38)


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Life Science
LIFE 210
Paul Laybourn

7 December Cancer cells reproduce without restraint and colonize other tissues Cancer cells reproduce in defiance of normal restraints of cell growth/division. They invade and colonize territories normally occupied by other cells. A tumor is benign if it is not invasive. Tumor = cancer when it is malignant (invades surrounding tissue and forms metastases) Common types of cancer in the United States Carcinomas: from epithelial cells Sarcomas: from connective tissue or muscle cells Leukemias and lymphomas: from white blood cells and precursors, as well as from nervous system Most cancers derive from a single abnormal cell Cancer cells are a clone. Can be demonstrated by molecular analysis of chromosomes (same abnormality in all cells) A single mutation is not enough to cause cancer Cancer occurs by progressive accumulation of random mutations in a single lineage of cells. Relationship with age People exposed to carcinogens develop cancer many years later. Tumor progression involves clonal evolution Development of cancer requires gradual accumulation of mutations. Usually 5 or more genes need to be mutated for developed cancer. Epigenetic changes contribute to tumor progression In addition to DNA mut
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