Antibodies against A or B, blood groups, agglutination, importance of blood typing, genetics of blood types, Rh system, blood components

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Microbio, Immun, Pathology
MIP 343
Alan Schenkel

6 March Blood types determined by presence of absence of agglutinogens (antigens) on surface of RBCs A or B Antibodies against A or B in plasma Start to build up shortly after birth Peak at 8-10 years Remain in declining amounts for life Stimulus for production unknown Proposed that initiated by minute amounts of A and B antigens that enter body through food, bacteria, &c. A person with A antigens has anti-B antibodies A person with B antigens has anti-A antibodies A person with neither A nor B antigens has both anti-A and anti-B antibodies A person with both A and B antigens has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies Blood type is based on antigens a person possesses Blood groups A – 39% of population B – 12% of population AB – 4% of population O – 45% of population Blood Antigens on Erythrocytes Antibodies in Plasma Can Give Can Receive Type (Agglutinogens) (Agglutinins) Blood To Blood From A A Anti-B A, AB O, A B B Anti-A B, AB O, B AB A and B Neither Anti-A nor AB O, A, B, AB Anti-B O Neither A nor B Both Anti-B and Anti-B O, A, B, AB O Process of Agglutination Determine blood type via test performed with antisera High levels of anti-A and anti-B agglutinins Agglutination = positive for that blood type Reaction Blood Type Anti-A Serum Anti-B Serum Agglutination No A Agglutination No Agglutination B Agglutination Agglutination Agglutination AB No No O Agglutination Agglutination Importance of Blood Typing People can receive transfusions of only certain blood types, depending on the type of blood they have. Mix incompatible blood types → erythrocyte destruction, agglutination, other problems Type B infused with type A blood Anti-A antibodies attack type A erythrocytes A erythrocytes agglutinate Hemoglobin released into plasma Anti-B antibodies from type A blood may attack type B erythrocytes ABO blood groups, other antigen characteristics often used in medico-legal situations Paternity tests Comparison of blood groups of moth, child, and alleged father Indicates possibility of fatherhood The Genetics of Blood Types Blood types inherited by multiple alleles, which occurs when three or more genes occupy a single locus on a chromosome I codes for synthesis of antigen A B I codes for production of antigen B i does not produce any antigens Phenotyp Possible e Genotypes A I IA I i B I IB B I i A B AB I I O ii Rh System 1900-1940 – great deal of re
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