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MIP 300 Lecture Notes - Anaerobic Respiration, Galactose, Inductor

Microbio, Immun, Pathology
Course Code
MIP 300
Erica Suchman

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1 April
Remember making proteins is expensive!
Average protein ~300 AA in length; make one 380 AA long
How many ATP to put AA on tRNAs? 380
How many GTP initiate? 1
How many GTP to bring AA-tRNAs to ribosome? 379
How many GTP to form peptide bonds? 0
How many GTP to translocate? 379
How many GTP to terminate? 1
Total: 1,140
How many sugar molecules must be eaten to make? 30 via aerobic respiration, >30 via
anaerobic respiration
Control of enzyme production
If enzymes not needed, why make?
Don’t want proteins – stop transcription or translation, usually transcription
Transcription control: induction
Production of many catabolic enzymes controlled this way
Gene has regulatory region near promoter, called operator
A regulator gene produces repressor proteins which bind to operator, stops
Inducer molecule increases transcription, binds to repressor protein, can’t bind
Inducer: usually substrate of enzyme produced
Example: b-galactosidase (b-gal) synthesis, lac operon
b-gal: lactose → glucose & galactose
Inductor: lactose
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