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MIP 300 Lecture Notes - Electron Transport Chain, Citric Acid Cycle, Oxidative Phosphorylation

Microbio, Immun, Pathology
Course Code
MIP 300
Erica Suchman

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4 March
Catabolism – degradation of complex molecules into simpler ones. Exergonic
Anabolism – synthesis of complex molecules. Endergonic
Energy from catabolism used to perform anabolism
Catabolism: Chemoorganotrophic Heterotrophs
Complex molecules broken down into constituents (very little energy released)
Proteins → amino acids
Polysaccharides → monosaccharides
Lipids → glycerol + fatty acids
Organic molecules are converted into molecules that can enter metabolic pathways:
glycolysis or the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (Krebs)
Point is to get e- out of organic materials
Molecules that enter the TCA cycle are oxidized completely to CO2, reducing NAD+ and
FAD+ to NADH and FADH2
NADH and FADH2 created during glycolysis or the TCA cycle feed into electron (e-)
transport chain (oxidative phosphorylation) and a great deal of energy is released and
used to create ATP
Materials fed into glycolysis or TCA cycle
Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
Glycolysis – Embden-Meyerhof, Dr. Suchman’s glycolysis outline
TCA cycle – Dr. Suchman’s TCA outline
e- transport – Dr. Suchman’s e- transport outline
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Aerobic – If O2 accepts e- taken from organic materials (at the end of electron
transport chain)
Anaerobic – NOT equal to fermentation. If some other inorganic e- acceptor
accepts e- taken from organic materials (at the end of electron transport chain)
Glucose (6 carbon)
2 ATP → ADP; fructose 1,6-diphosphate formed (6 carbon)
2 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate formed (3 carbon, 1 phosphate each)
Each phosphorylated, oxidized (by NAD+ → NADH)
NADH to ETC (electron transport chain)
2 ATP formed – substrate level phosphorylation
Pyruvate (3 carbon), x2
For each glucose molecule → 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP
TCA cycle
Pyruvate → acetyl-CoA (2 carbon)
Pyruvate oxidized (CO2 loss)
NAD+ → NADH (NAD+ reduced)
4 carbon intermediate covalently bonds to acetyl-CoA → 6 carbon intermediate
Oxidation – NAD+ → NADH, CO2 loss, 5 carbon molecule
Oxidation – NAD+ → NADH, CO2loss, 4 carbon molecule
Substrate level phosphorylation – GTP formed
Double bonds between carbons
Susceptible to acetyl-CoA attack – covalent bond
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