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Lecture

MIP 300 Lecture Notes - Dengue Fever, Spasticity, Escherichia Coli


Department
Microbio, Immun, Pathology
Course Code
MIP 300
Professor
Erica Suchman

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15 February
Exotoxins
Proteins, made by gram + and gram –
4 types
Neurotoxins – affect nervous system
E.g. botulism – inhibits stimulatory neurotransmitter release from nerves, no
nerve impulses, flaccid paralysis
Tetanus – inhibits inhibitory neurotransmitter release from nerves, constant nerve
impulses, spastic paralysis
Enterotoxins – affect GI tract
E.g. cholera, E. coli, stop H2O uptake in intestines, diarrhea
Cytotoxins – affect cellular functions
E.g. diphtheria, Shigella (food borne illness), Anthrax inhibit protein synthesis
Superantigens – overstimulate the immune system, cause similar response to
endotoxins
E.g. Staphylococcus aureus TSST1 (toxic shock syndrome toxin 1)
Exotoxins
Genes: chromosomal, plasmids, phage
E. coli – plasmid
Diphtheria – lysogenic phage (integrated into the genome)
Shigella dysenteriae – chromosomal
Very toxic
Cause an immune response – make antibodies specific for the toxin called antitoxins
Toxins used to make vaccines – heat inactivated toxins: toxoids (after symptoms)
E.g. tetanus
Can inject people with antitoxins past exposure – antiserum or antitoxin

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Antibodies specific for the toxin
Endotoxins
Contained in lipopolysaccharide layer
Not protein
Gram – bacteria
Weak immune response
No vaccine
Causes fever, shock, decreased blood pressure, cold, faint, blood coagulation,
weakness, inflammation, intestinal hemorrhage, diarrhea
The 2 types of immunity
Innate immunity – general barriers, physical barriers, chemical barriers, biological,
inflammation, fever
Acquired immunity – humoral branch (B cells and antibody), cell mediated branch (T
cells)
Host defenses against parasites nonspecific (also called innate immune response)
General
Nutrition: malnourished more susceptible
Fever: body increases temp to inhibit microbes, increased immune response
Age: very young and old – weak immune systems
Psychological state of host
Genetics
Species specificity, e.g. humans don’t get hog cholera
Metabolic, physiological (pH, temp), anatomical differences
Differences within a species, e.g. African Americans more resistant to
malaria than Caucasians
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