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MIP 300 Lecture Notes - Start Codon, Ribosome, Prokaryotic Small Ribosomal Subunit

Microbio, Immun, Pathology
Course Code
MIP 300
Erica Suchman

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29 March
Promoter sequences
-10 is stronger consensus than -35, but -35 is also consensus sequence
Both are usually 6 bp in length
Translation: the genetic code
During translation, mRNA is read in groups of 3 bases – codons
64 possible triplet combinations of 4 bases
20 amino acids found in proteins
Code degeneracy – some amino acids ≥ 1 codon, each codon = 1 amino acid
AUG = initiation codon, starts translation (also Met)
UGA, UAA, UAG = termination codons, stop translation
mRNA is read when ribosome brings in appropriate tRNA with complimentary anti-codon
Each codon has a tRNA – each tRNA is specific for 1 amino acid
Correct amino acid is attached to tRNA 3’ OH by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, using ATP
Translation: proteins from mRNA
3 steps
met-tRNA and ribosome 30S subunit bind
mRNA binds – Shine-Delgarno sequence aligns mRNA and ribosome, met-tRNA
is positioned at start codon, AUG
Shine-Delgarno sequence – AGGA
1 ATP to put M on tRNA
At least 3 initiation factors help
50S subunit comes in, GTP → GDP
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