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Marine animals and life.docx

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Natural Resources
NR 150

The three main groups of marine animals • Cetacean Whales Porpoises Dolphins • Mammals • Evolution: mammals evolved from reptiles • Larger brain • Young are being nursed • Mammals • Evolution: mammals evolved from reptiles • Larger brain • Young are being nursed • Mammals • Evolution: mammals evolved from reptiles • Larger brain • Young are being nursed • Dolphins are very smart • Whales spend their entire life in the water • Streamlined, resemble fishes • But breathe air (lungs)m have air produce milk for their young • Have front flippers • No rear flippers but they are present in embryos. • Largest whale ever lived is the blue whale • The whale shark is the largest species of fish and eats: plankton near the surface of the water Carnivora • Seals • sea lions • Walruses • sea otters • Elephant seals • Marine mammals include the largest animals ever to have lived on earth • Sirenia • Manatees • Dugongs • Marine mammals share four common features. • Streamlined body shape • Generate their own internal body heat and conserve heat through layers of fat or fur. • Modified respiratory systems to collect and retain large amounts of O2 Benthic communities from near shore to deep sea The importance of competition • Organisms in a community compete with space, food • Littoral zone: intertidal • Sub littoral zone: beyond the littoral zone • Bathyl zone: slopes to great depths • Community: a population of organisms that interact in a particular location • Population: group of organisms of same species in same location • Habitat: physical location of an organism • Niche: • Seaweeds and marine plants are diverse and effective primary producers • Great variety of shapes and sizes • 7000 species • Seaweeds are nonvascular organisms • Thallus: body of a multicellular algae • Blades: leaves photosynthesis, absorb gases • Stripes: Stem strong, photosynthesis, shock absorbent • Holdfast: root anchor does not uptake water or nutrients • Gas bladder • Rockweed • Thick, leathery talli • Can stand exposure to air • Occurs in intertidal zones • Rockweed provides: • Shelter for periwinkle snails and small cresteans • Sargassum • Spherical air bladders that keep small, leaf like blades afloat near surface. • Kelp: Largest of the brown algae • Found below tide level in temperature and sub polar latitudes • Economic source of seaweed • As a food source • Produce gelatinous chemicals used in food processing • Algin: (some uses) • Emulsifier in dairy products • Prevents frosting from drying out • Thickener and emulsifier • Marine algae as biofuels • Fast growing • Renewable • Efficient primary producers • Does not need freshwater to grow • Under investigation for use as biofuels • A mangrove • Root system traps and holds sediment • Stabilizing effect and expansion of delta and coastal wetlands • Root system safe haven for organisms • Rocky intertidal communities • B
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