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Lecture

Oceanography Plate tectonics.docx

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Department
Natural Resources
Course Code
NR 150
Professor
Ursula

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Oceanography Plate tectonics Wegener’s Explanation • Centrifugal forces • Inertia and tidal drag from the sun and the moon • Puzzle pieces fit together • PROS: Mountain ranges and fossils would fit if all continents were put together. • CONS: • No trails • The crust and mountains were supported mechanically Theory of plate tectonics • Progress was made in understanding that earth was density stratified and that the interior • Body waves: Traveled through the interior of the earth • P waves • S waves They travel at different speeds. • P waves show up first then the s waves appear • P: compression waves travel twice as fast through the earth • S: side to side • P waves can penetrate through the liquid outer core, but are bent in transit. • S waves cannot travel through liquid, creating a large shadow zone between 103 and 180 degrees from an earthquakes source. Earth Structure 2 Perspectives. • Chemical Composition • Looks at the chemical composition of the earth • Results from the process of young earth and subsequent density stratification • Physical states • Liquid • Solid • Gaseous Chenical Characteristics Crust: uppermost layer Mantle: Layer beneath crust Most of earth’s mass and volume Core: inner and outer core Crust in two components ~ Oceanic crust: basalt ~Continental crust: Granite Mantle consists of mainly silicon and oxygen with some iron and magenesium Core Consists of iron and nickel Earth’s interior layer based on physical • Lithosphere • Lithos: Rocks • Earth’s cool, rigid, outer layer. • Asthenosphere Asthenus (weak) • Is the hot, partially melted layer, slow • Lower mantle extends all the way to the core • Hotter than the asthenospher
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