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Electromagnetic induction, flux, Lenz's law, Faraday's law

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Course Code
PH 122
Brian Jones

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10 March Electromagnetic Induction Changing magnetic fields can induce electric potential differences. Changing flux and the resulting induced potential difference is responsible for devices ranging from transformers to magnetic brakes. This connection of magnetism and electricity is responsible for some truly remarkable effects. Motional emf Movement in magnetic field causes charge separation To get a noticeable effect… A shark is sensitive to a potential difference of 5 nV. If the shark’s head is 0.6 m wide, and it swims at 2.0 m/s in a location where the dip angle is 60°… What is the potential difference in the earth’s field? ΔV = vlB -5 ΔV = (2.0 m/s) (0.6 m) (50 x 10 Tsin60°) -5 ΔV = 5.2 x 10 V ΔV = 52000 nV What is the smallest vertical field the shark can sense? 5 x 10 V = (2.0 m/s) (0.6 m) B B = 4.2 nT Flux φ = A eff ABcosθ θ is the angle between the magnetic field B and the axis of the loop. The magnetic flux through the loop is φ = ABcosθ. Lenz’s law There is an induced current in a closed, conducting loop if and only if the magnetic flux through the loop is changing. The direction of the induced current is such that the induced magnetic field opposes the change in the flux. Changing flux induces an emf Faraday’s law An emf ε is induced in a conducting loop if the magnetic flux
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