Simons & Chambers
• Polled public vs. memory researchers on the nature of memory
Nature of Memory
o Greek “without memory”
Anterograde Amnesia: Impaired memories after event.
Retrograde Amnesia: Memories impaired before event
Ex. E.P. infected by virus which damaged his hippocampus
• Temporal lobe; hippocampus: Inability to put memories into long term.
o Older memories already stored- undamaged
Long-term vs. Working Memory
Amnesia offers evidence for a dissociation
H.M. Henry Molaison
• Removed hippocampus
Hippocampus: memory consolidation
• Taking memories; permanent overtime
Long-Term Memory: Anything stored for more than a few seconds.
• Not dealing with capacity limit which effects long-term memory
• Brain’s total capacity = quadrillion bytes range (Bartol et al. 2015).
• Not sure how much is available.
Norman: organization is crucial- how to store & retrieve
Analogy- gigantic hard drive
Hints that you have different memory systems Why?
• Not all one single system
• One set for facts (declarative element/ explicit)
• One set for procedure (non-declarative/ implicit) procedural
We Forget A lot
• Learning & remembering takes effort & resources
• Older memories less useful
• Inefficient & overwhelming
• Some things are most relevant
• Lots of redundant stuff
• Exposure of a lot of stuff
Does that lead us to know more?
We believe we know more than we do…
Ex. Lawson (2006) bike drawings
Ex. Norman (1988)
• Knowledge in world in head
• Knowledge in head requires effort
How Accurate is Your Memory?
• Norman (1988)
o Knowledge in world vs. knowledge in head
o Information is in the world; thus, great precision is not required
o Thus, great precision is not required
• Memory is an active process
• However; more exposure
o But, Beker