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Lecture 3

PSY 260 Lecture 3: Piaget and Sensorimotor Intelligence

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Course Code
PSY 260
John Adams

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❖ Piaget and Sensorimotor Intelligence ➢ Piaget was the first scientist/developmentalist to posit that babies are learning ➢ Circular reaction - loop of sensation, perception, and cognition, with no discernible beginning or end ➢ Sensorimotor Intelligence ■ Refers to infant thinking processes that rely on their senses and motor skills ■ 6 substages ❖ Primary Circular Reactions ➢ Substage One ■ Reflexes like sucking, staring, grasping, etc. ● Lasts 1 month ● Suck anything that first touches their lips ➢ Substage Two ■ First acquired adaptations ● Months 1 to 4 ● Develop cognition to suck some ways for hunger, others for comfort, and don’t suck just anything anymore ❖ Secondary Circular Reaction ➢ Substage Three ■ Making interesting sights last ● 4 - 8 Months ● Smile, clap, celebrate ➢ Substage Four ■ New adaptation and anticipation ● 8 - 12 Months ● Pursuing a goal ❖ Substage Four: Pursuing Goals ➢ Babies can use signs at this age, like “eat” and “more” ❖ Substage Four: Object Permanence ➢ 8 Months ■ Start to look under and around for fallen toys ➢ Happens for blind babies as well, search for objects they hear ➢ A - Not - B error occurs at 18 months ■ Will look for the same object under one thing rather than the second even if it was shown and placed right in front of them ➢ Practical uses of this knowledge as a parent? ■ Peek-a-boo ■ Hide n’ seek ❖ Tertiary Circular Reaction ➢ Substage Five ■ Active experimentation ● 12 - 18 Months ● Trial and error ➢ Substage Six ■ Mental combinations ● 18 - 24 Months ● Think through how to achieve the goal with knowledge of previous experience and with imagination ● Because they can combine ideas, they can pretend ● Deferred imitation ◆ Keeping a memory then applying it later down the road ❖ Was Piaget Right? ➢ Yes regarding the “what,” No regarding the “when” ➢ Object permanence might be earlier per “suprise” studies with 5 - month infants ➢ Babies younger than 1 year old have pretended and deferred imitation ➢ Habituation combined with precise measuring tools have given evidence for 1 month olds recognizing the difference between similar phonological sounds and images ❖ Language ➢ What are some early milestones when babies are learning to talk? ■ Saying mom and dad ■ Pointing to things they want a noun to ➢ How do you think babies learn language? ■ Listening to parents or siblings or others around them ■ Inatability ❖ Newborns ➢ The sequence of language development is the same around the world ➢ Prefer language and voice of their mother ■ Familiarity ➢ Child - directed speech, “baby talk” ■ Higher pitch, simple words, repetition, exaggerated tone ■ Fosters learning ■ Babies enjoy rhymes, repetition, melody, alliteration ❖ Babbling ➢ Starts between 6 - 9 months for most babies ➢ Repeat syllables ➢ Other forms of communication ■ Baby sign language ■ No research supporting that signs lead to talking sooner ❖ Language Acquisition ➢ First words: about 1 year ■ Believed to understand about
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