Basic cell structure, chromosomes, cell cycle

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Soil + Crop Sciences
SOCR 330
Sarah Ward

24 August Basic Cell Structure Every living organism contains genetic material (usually DNA but can be RNA) DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes In eukaryotes, most DNA within nucleus with some in mitochondria and chloroplasts (extra-nuclear DNA) cpNDA – DNA in chloroplasts mtDNA – DNA in mitochondria Prokaryotes lack nuclear membrane Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes, 1 pair of sex chromosomes Chromosomes Chromosomes are “packages” of condensed DNA Each chromosome has a distinctive shape The full chromosome complement of a eukaryote is the karyotype Trisomy 21 – Down syndrome Karyotypes can show abnormalities Types of Chromosomes Cytogenetics – study of chromosomes Chromatid – one strand of a chromosome Centromere attaches strands Short arm is p (for petite) Long arm is q Metacentric chromosomes – long arm = short arm roughly Acrocentric chromosomes have no short arm, just stalks with satellites Sub-metacentric chromosomes actually have a shorter short arm Telomeres are tips of chromatids Chromatin – DNA complex with protein Euchromatin – contains workin
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