Mitosis, meiosis

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Colorado State University
Soil + Crop Sciences
SOCR 330
Sarah Ward

26 August Mitosis End product is two identical daughter cells For growth, repair 4 stages: Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Prophase Cell completes S phase – DNA replicated Chromosomes become 2-stranded (each consists of 2 identical chromatids) Chromosomes shorten and thicken Metaphase Two-stranded chromosomes align on spindle Easiest stage to view karyotype under light microscope Anaphase Spindle fibers contract Chromatids separate and move to poles of cell Telophase Cell divides into two daughter cells, each with 1 chromatid from each chromosome Nuclear membrane reforms Genetic Implications of Mitosis NO CHANGE!! DNA should replicate precisely Chromosome number should stay constant Daughter cells should be exact genetic replicas of parent cell that divides Faulty mitosis can give rise to: Somatic mutation and somaclonal variation Higher incidence of errors in rapidly dividing cells Meiosis Meiosis takes place in germline cells (ova, sperm, pollen) Meiosis HALVES the number of chromosomes present Meiosis enables GENETIC RECOMBINATION
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