Gene, gene expression, protein structure

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Colorado State University
Soil + Crop Sciences
SOCR 330
Sarah Ward

10 October What is a gene? Identifiable DNA sequence coding for a specific product Structural genes code for proteins rRNA, tRNA genes code for ribonucleotide acids How is a Gene Identified in the Genome? Always read 5’ → 3’ Introns – intervening sequences Promoter upstream from exon (includes TATA box and CCAAT box) What are the Functions of a Gene? Convert the information encoded by the DNA base sequence into molecules (usually proteins) that determine cell properties and function Replicate itself accurately so encoded information can be passed on Gene Expression Process of converting information in base sequence to gene product DNA → mRNA → polypeptide → protein Central dogma of molecular biology DNA → rRNA or tRNA “1 gene = 1 protein” no longer valid Human cell can make 100,000 proteins but only about 22,000 genes in genome Why do Most Genes Code for Proteins? Proteins may be: Enzymes (catalyze metabolic reactions) Regulatory
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