Chromosome number, polyploidy, non-disjunction, aneuploidy

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Soil + Crop Sciences
SOCR 330
Sarah Ward

5 December Changes in Chromosome Number Euploidy: variation in numbers of sets of chromosomes Aneuploidy: variation in number of one individual chromosome Euploid Variation Number of chromosome sets differs from diploid x = basic number of chromosomes in a set 2x = diploid 3x = triploid 4x = tetraploid 5x = pentaploid etc. 3x and higher are polyploids (common in plants, rare in animals) Polyploidy Autopolyploid: all chromosome sets from same species (e.g. AAAA) Allopolyploid: chromosome sets from different species (e.g. AABB) Monoploid: organism with single set of chromosomes Male honey bee Modified meiosis with no chromosome separate at anaphase 1 How Does Polyploidy Arise? Spontaneous doubling of chromosome sets from non-disjunction at meiosis Artificially created using chemicals such as colchicine Polyploidy in Modern Crops Bananas and seedless watermelons triploid Meiosis fails so no seeds form Aneuploid Variation Missing or extra individual chromosomes 2n + 1 = trisomy 2n –
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