BIO 105 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Petri Dish, Microbiological Culture, Archaea

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Bacteria and Archaea-Prokaryotes
Domains -- all life on earth can be categorized in 3 domains
Prokaryotes
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukaryotes
Eukaryotic Cell Traits
Linear DNA with chromosomes
Nucleus
Organelles
“Big”
Prokaryotic Cell Traits
Circular DNA
No nucleus
No organelles
Small
Shared Traits
DNA
Ribosomes
Cytoplasm
Plasma membrane
Why study prokaryotes?
They are everywhere → we are in constant contact with prokaryotes
The good outnumber the bad (the pathogens that make us sick)
Microbiome -- prokaryotes make up structure for normal bodily processes and functions
Robert Koch -- 1800s - Germ Theory of Disease
Laid foundation for modern medicine
Studied organisms isolated with diseases → took a sample and grew the
microorganism on a petri dish → injected microorganism into healthy organisms
to find the cause of the disease
Four Postulates for judging whether a given bacteria is the cause of a disease:
The bacteria must be present in every case of the disease
The bacteria must be isolated from the host with the disease and grown in
pure culture
The specific disease must be reproduced when a pure culture of the
bacteria is inoculated into a healthy susceptible host
The bacteria must be recoverable from the experimentally infected host
Themes in the Diversification of Bacteria and Archaea
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