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Lecture 11

GOVT 2225 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Michel Foucault, Heterosexuality, Hookup Culture


Department
Government
Course Code
GOVT 2225
Professor
Anna Haskins
Lecture
11

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Sex,%Gender,%and%Sexuality%%
Sex
Gender
Sexuality%
Sex%does%not%equal%gender%does%not%equal%sexuality%
Biological%sex%does%not%always%match%one's%gender%identity
Remember%"gender"%is%a%performed%social%role
Not%binary
Continuum
Sociology%in%the%bedroom
Social%norms%dictate%how%we%have%sex%and%with%who%
Social%norms%encourage%some%practices%and%condemn%others
Such%norms%vary%across%cultures%and% over%time%
Sexuality%is%socially%determined%and%varies%in%its%expression%across%
culture%time,%and%place
Variation%in%socially%acceptable%sexual%practices
Same-sex%relations
Acceptable%among%the%ancient%Greeks
Evidence%of%social%norms%changing%over%time
Encouraged%among%the%Siwans%of%North%Africa%and%the%Keraki%of%
New%Guinea%
Viewed%in%(varying%degrees)%as%deviant%in%American%society%
Take%a%practice%and%show% how%its%different%over%time
Laws%around%the%world%reflect%around%perceptions%of%sexuality
Sexuality%as%a%reflection%of%power,%prestige,%and%privilege%
Sexuality%is%shaped% by%social%factors
What%we%consider%"normal"%changes%by%time%and%context%and%is%defined%
by%those% in%power
Heterosexuality%is%common%but%not%"normal"%in%the%sense%of%being%
dictated%by%some%universal%standard
Monogamy%can%be%seen%in%the%same%way%
Homosexuality%as%a%social%construct%(Michel%Foucault)
Societies,%for%various%reasons,%actively%police%or%govern%out%bodies
Having%same-sex%relations%went%from%a%sexual%act%to%a%defining%
characteristic%of%a%person
It%was%detached%from%the%person%
We%began%to%police%ourselves% and%each%other%with%regard%to%sexuality%
Homosexual%act%becoming%an%identity%was%the%creation%of%a%construct%
We%began%to%police%ourselves% and%police%others%
Pascoes%"Dude,%you're%a%fag"
What%does% it%mean%to%be%gay?
More%a%competition%of%masculinity%
Perceptions%of%lack%of%masculinity
Ethnographic%research%on%how%teen%boys%enforce%gender%norms
Homophobia%is%central%in%the%creating%of%American%adolescent%
masculinity%
Central%to%showing%your%masculinity,%you%need%to%show%how%you%are%not%
gay
"Fag%discourse"%as%a%way%teen%boys%police,%regulate,%and%affirm%
their%bourgeoning%masculinity
Powerful%and%painful%way%to%police%manhood%that%impacts%both%
gay%and%straight%teen%boys
Masculinity%decoupled%from%sexuality%
Ward's%"Dude-sex"
Analysis%of%LA's%craigslist%"casual%encounter"%online%community%to%
explore%the%relationship%between%race,%class,%and%sexuality%
Men%who%have%sex%with%men
Power%dominance%needs%to%be%established
Whiteness%and%masculinity%interact%to%offer%"heterosexual"%culture%to%
white%MSM
This%is%done%through%the%use%of%racialized%hierarchies%and%
archetypes
This%helps%signify%the%"really%normal,%nothing%out%of%the%ordinary"%
Power%still%comes%into%play
Different%axis%to%show%dominance%
Sex%on%campus
No%real%difference%in%number%of%sexual%partners%from%previous%
generations
Yes%college%students%have%sex,%but%historically%this%isn't%something%new
What's%new%is%the%culture%of%sex%on%campus
Wade's%"American%Hookup"
The%"hookup"% versus%"hookup% culture"
Behaviors%related%to%hookups
Hierarchy,%who%you%hook%up%with%matters
Hookup% culture
Parties,%booze,%sexualized%bodies,%sexual%expectations
Pressure%(from%outside%and%within)% to%see%sex%as%fun
A%lot%of%judgement
Views%of%sexual%freedom%as%an%important%indicator%of%one's%ability%
to%be%fun%
A%lot%of%alochol%involved%
Inequities%in%hookup% culture?
Where%and%where%aren't%there%gender%gaps%in%hookup% culture?
How%are%women%who%hook%up%with%numerous%male%partners%perceived?%
What%about%men?
Inequalities%by%race,%class,%and%sexual%orientation%
Wade%says
Pressure%by%both%men%&%women%by%this%hookup% culture%
Agreement%by%both%men%and%women%that%it%is%pleasurable%or%harmful%
Respect%and%hook%ups
Respected%your%hook%up%partner%less
Men%much%higher
Felt%that%your% hook%up%partner%respected%you%less
Women%much%higher%
11/7
Tuesday,% November% 7,%2017
1:37%PM
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