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Lecture 1

GOVT 2225 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: The Big Questions, Preschool, James Samuel Coleman


Department
Government
Course Code
GOVT 2225
Professor
Anna Haskins
Lecture
1

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School&Funding&and&Resources
Controversy*Two*Start
"A#Tale#of#Two#Schools"
Difference#between#white#&#black#high#school#students#
experience
Different#resources#and#materials#at#school
Different#classes#being#taken#
Role#of#education#in#society
To#teach#a#basic#and#common#skillset,#impart#
knowledge,#and#produce#dispositions#that#are#useful#in#
the#labor#market#and#life
This#is#done#through#socializing,#credentialing,#and#
sorting#
But#beyond#this,#the#US#also#sees#education#and#
schooling#as#a#way#to#address#social#economic#inequality#
Coleman#1990
In#the#United#States,#nearly#from#the#beginning,#the#
concept#of#educational#opportunity#had#special#meaning#
which#focused#on#equality#
This#meaning#included#the#following#elements
He#points#to#a#shift#in#our#viewpoint
Idea#of#quality#of#results
School's#responsibility#shifted#from#increasing#and#
distributing#equally#its#"quality"#to#increasing#the#
quality#of#its#students'#achievements
The#condition#of#education#2014/2015
School#Funding#and#Resources
Differences#in#school#quality#by#race#lead#to#this#shift#in#
focus
Racial#disparities#in#class-size,#access#to#materials,#
quality#of#teachers,#condition#of#buildings#(think#
Kozol#piece)
Which#lead#most#people#to#believe#that#increases#in#
resources#would#directly#impact/influence#school#
performance
Trends#in#School#Funding
Since#the#1960s,#student/teacher#ratios#have#declined
You#want#smaller#teacher#student#rations#because#
that#means#the#teacher#can#work#more#individually#
with#the#student
This#is#a#good#thing
Spending#more#money#per#student#
While,#expenditures#have#steadily#increased
Teacher#salaries##
Per#pupil#expenditures#have#increased#
International#comparisons
Expenditures#per#pupil#in#the#US#exceed#nearly#every#
other#country#in#the#world
Do#these#inputs#equate#to#actual#improvement?#
The#big#questions
Are#these#funding#trends#linked#to#average#changes#in#
achievement?
How#much#does#school#funding#matter?
The#coleman#report
Updating#coleman#(Hanushek#2016)
Trends#in#k-12#educational#outcomes
Test#scores#have#increased#(slightly)#
High#school#graduation#rates#have#increased;#dropout#
rates#have#decreased
The#Coleman#Report:#equality#of#educational#opportunity#
(1966)
The#most#famous#piece#of#educational#research#ever
Ordered#by#an#act#of#congress#
Civil#Rights#Act#of#1964
"There#shall#be#a#study#of#unequal#educational#
opportunity"
Expectations
There#are#large#racial#differences#(and#to#a#lesser#
extent#class#differences)#in#school#resources
Such#differences#will#explained#differences#in#
achievement
Led#by#the#eminent#sociologist#James#Coleman
The#Coleman#Report:#A#summary
A#massive#achievement#gaps#by#race#and#region
Schools#don't#matter#for#student#achievement
Only#families#matter#-- differences#in#home,#
neighborhood#and#peer#environments#explain#most#
of#the#gaps
Money#doesnt#matter#-- per#pupil#expenditures#
have#little#correlation#with#student#outcomes#
Most#famous#(and#controversial)#conclusion
Family#background#explains#much#more#of#the#variance#
in#achievement#than#between#-school#differences#in#
school#resources
"Sources#on#inequality#of#educational#opportunity#
appear#to#lie#first#in#the#home#itself#and#the#cultural#
influences#immediately#surrounding#the#home,#then#
they#lie#in#the#schools'#ineffectiveness#to#free#
achievement#from#the#impact#of#the#home.."
"Per#pupil#expenditure,#books#in#the#library,#and#a#host#
of#other#facilities#and#curricular#measures#show#
virtually#no#relation#to#achievement#if#the#"social"#
environment#of#the#school#-- the#educational#
backgrounds#of#other#students#and#teachers#-- is#held#
constant."
Does#school#funding#matter?
Hanushek#1996
We#spend#much#more#$#for#schooling#now#than#
before
This#$#has#been#used#to#improve#resources#and#
salaries
Achievement#has#not#improved
Hanushek#2016
Minimal#statistical# evidence#to#support#that#
standard#school#resources#are#connected#to#student#
learning#
Kozol#2005
Average#estimates#mask#variation#in#resources#and#
funding
Differences#in#school#funding#sources
Federal,#state,#local
More#resources#does#not#equal#better#quality#education
Private#fundraising#&#money#from#parents
Pre-school#education#opportunities#
Conclusions
Schools#do#matter,#as#do#resources#
Not#as#straightforward#as#we#like
Not#that#more#money#=#better#test#scores#
Hanushek
How#money#is#spent#is#much#more#important#than#how#
much#is#spent
Raudenbush
Schools#can#and#do#reduce#social#inequality#by#
Also#the#importance#of#teachers
Increasing#access#to#early#schooling1.
Extending#the#school#year2.
Lengthening#the#school#day3.
Increasing#amount#of#required#schooling4.
Sept&26
Tuesday,& October& 17,&2017
5:25&PM
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School&Funding&and&Resources
Controversy*Two*Start
"A#Tale#of#Two#Schools"
Difference#between#white#&#black#high#school#students#
experience
Different#resources#and#materials#at#school
Different#classes#being#taken#
Role#of#education#in#society
To#teach#a#basic#and#common#skillset,#impart#
knowledge,#and#produce#dispositions#that#are#useful#in#
the#labor#market#and#life
This#is#done#through#socializing,#credentialing,#and#
sorting#
But#beyond#this,#the#US#also#sees#education#and#
schooling#as#a#way#to#address#social#economic#inequality#
Coleman#1990
In#the#United#States,#nearly#from#the#beginning,#the#
concept#of#educational#opportunity#had#special#meaning#
which#focused#on#equality#
This#meaning#included#the#following#elements
He#points#to#a#shift#in#our#viewpoint
Idea#of#quality#of#results
School's#responsibility#shifted#from#increasing#and#
distributing#equally#its#"quality"#to#increasing#the#
quality#of#its#students'#achievements
The#condition#of#education#2014/2015
School#Funding#and#Resources
Differences#in#school#quality#by#race#lead#to#this#shift#in#
focus
Racial#disparities#in#class-size,#access#to#materials,#
quality#of#teachers,#condition#of#buildings#(think#
Kozol#piece)
Which#lead#most#people#to#believe#that#increases#in#
resources#would#directly#impact/influence#school#
performance
Trends#in#School#Funding
Since#the#1960s,#student/teacher#ratios#have#declined
You#want#smaller#teacher#student#rations#because#
that#means#the#teacher#can#work#more#individually#
with#the#student
This#is#a#good#thing
Spending#more#money#per#student#
While,#expenditures#have#steadily#increased
Teacher#salaries##
Per#pupil#expenditures#have#increased#
International#comparisons
Expenditures#per#pupil#in#the#US#exceed#nearly#every#
other#country#in#the#world
Do#these#inputs#equate#to#actual#improvement?#
The#big#questions
Are#these#funding#trends#linked#to#average#changes#in#
achievement?
How#much#does#school#funding#matter?
The#coleman#report
Updating#coleman#(Hanushek#2016)
Trends#in#k-12#educational#outcomes
Test#scores#have#increased#(slightly)#
High#school#graduation#rates#have#increased;#dropout#
rates#have#decreased
The#Coleman#Report:#equality#of#educational#opportunity#
(1966)
The#most#famous#piece#of#educational#research#ever
Ordered#by#an#act#of#congress#
Civil#Rights#Act#of#1964
"There#shall#be#a#study#of#unequal#educational#
opportunity"
Expectations
There#are#large#racial#differences#(and#to#a#lesser#
extent#class#differences)#in#school#resources
Such#differences#will#explained#differences#in#
achievement
Led#by#the#eminent#sociologist#James#Coleman
The#Coleman#Report:#A#summary
A#massive#achievement#gaps#by#race#and#region
Schools#don't#matter#for#student#achievement
Only#families#matter#-- differences#in#home,#
neighborhood#and#peer#environments#explain#most#
of#the#gaps
Money#doesnt#matter#-- per#pupil#expenditures#
have#little#correlation#with#student#outcomes#
Most#famous#(and#controversial)#conclusion
Family#background#explains#much#more#of#the#variance#
in#achievement#than#between#-school#differences#in#
school#resources
"Sources#on#inequality#of#educational#opportunity#
appear#to#lie#first#in#the#home#itself#and#the#cultural#
influences#immediately#surrounding#the#home,#then#
they#lie#in#the#schools'#ineffectiveness#to#free#
achievement#from#the#impact#of#the#home.."
"Per#pupil#expenditure,#books#in#the#library,#and#a#host#
of#other#facilities#and#curricular#measures#show#
virtually#no#relation#to#achievement#if#the#"social"#
environment#of#the#school#-- the#educational#
backgrounds#of#other#students#and#teachers#-- is#held#
constant."
Does#school#funding#matter?
Hanushek#1996
We#spend#much#more#$#for#schooling#now#than#
before
This#$#has#been#used#to#improve#resources#and#
salaries
Achievement#has#not#improved
Hanushek#2016
Minimal#statistical# evidence#to#support#that#
standard#school#resources#are#connected#to#student#
learning#
Kozol#2005
Average#estimates#mask#variation#in#resources#and#
funding
Differences#in#school#funding#sources
Federal,#state,#local
More#resources#does#not#equal#better#quality#education
Private#fundraising#&#money#from#parents
Pre-school#education#opportunities#
Conclusions
Schools#do#matter,#as#do#resources#
Not#as#straightforward#as#we#like
Not#that#more#money#=#better#test#scores#
Hanushek
How#money#is#spent#is#much#more#important#than#how#
much#is#spent
Raudenbush
Schools#can#and#do#reduce#social#inequality#by#
Also#the#importance#of#teachers
Increasing#access#to#early#schooling1.
Extending#the#school#year2.
Lengthening#the#school#day3.
Increasing#amount#of#required#schooling4.
Sept&26
Tuesday,& October& 17,&2017 5:25&PM
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version