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Lecture 23

PSYCH 1102 Lecture 23: Dynamic and Situated Cognition

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PSYCH 1102
Khena Swallow

4.2.17 LECTURE 23: DYNAMIC AND SITUATED COGNITION Today ● Dynamic Systems Hypothesis ○ Steam engines, horses, babies ● Situated / Embodied Cognition (Hamid) iClicker ● The fact that we move our eyes several times a second means that ○ Visual input into the eyes changes frequently ● What does the Watt governor suggest about cognition ○ Some problems may be best solved by coupling output and input A steam engine problem ● How to smooth over variable steam and load? ● Real time interaction between parts, all the time and continuously, not step by step ● Feedback ● Equilibrium in the system, where the system is moving in a way to keep valve in a constant input, things are more or less steady ● Illustrates differences between computational and dynamical approaches ● State space: all possible states a system can be in ○ Arm angle ○ Engine speed ● Coupling: arm angle and engine speed are interdependent ○ Time sensitive - change in one, quickly reflected in other ● Attractors: for any given speed, arm angles will tend to a particular valve ● Self-organizing: no central controller directing individual parts - issue with having a controller: infinite regress, something doing the controlling that needs something controlling it Dynamic systems ● Forget information processing ● Minds follow the same rules as everything else ● How this works ○ Steam engine ○ Walking and gait - check out book for description of baby stepping ○ A-not-B error Example ● Wagging fingers at the same time, as you speed up your fingers adjust to different angles ○ Phase shift: you start to shift fingers towards front-back ○ A change in equilibrium 4.2.17 Horses ● The gait that a horse performs follows a patterns - as speed increases the pattern shifts ● More energy effective to shift phases Dynamic system hypothesis ● Explanation focus on ○ A mathematical description of the state space ○ That captures how mental and environmental factors ○ Vary together over time ● Minimize roles of ○ Mental representations ○ Procedures and algorithms ● Instead, complex behavior emerges through self-organization ● How can it do anything with cognition? DYNAMICS IN DEVELOPMENT Dynamics in development ● Smith and Thelen ● Dynamics over lifespan as well in short-term
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