AG 401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Carbon Footprint, Local Food, Animal Ethics

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14 Mar 2019
Take-Aways and Reflective notes:
Chapter 7 & 8
Fall 2018 - AG 4010
Part 1: List, in bullet point fashion, your top 10 Take-Aways (knowledge that you gained) from
reading Chapter 7 & 8. See the assignment instructions for examples of appropriate take-
aways and instructions on writing take-aways for two chapters.
Chapter 7
- I found it interesting that Transylvanians purchase milk at higher prices in order to
preserve their past. Transylvanians believe that their traditional way of producing milk is
considered to be of higher quality compared to modern methods and that they believe
their local milk is “real whole milk.”
- Locavores are people who argue that local foods are superior in all ways to non-local
foods. Their arguments are unfair because they are claiming all these things with not
much evidence. For example, while local foods might be healthier on average compared
to nonlocal foods, nonlocal foods can still be healthy, and it depends on the source.
- Nonlocal foods can provide nutritious value and help people who might not have access
to local, fresh, or frozen produce. For example, canned foods have lower costs and can
still be nutritious. Not everyone has access or is able to afford local foods, which is why
nonlocal foods are important and can also be nutritious depending on the time and
- Local food does not always have a smaller carbon footprint. Despite claims that local
foods travel fewer miles between the farmers and consumers, this can result in higher
fuel consumption compared to nonlocal foods. Consumers travel extra miles to the
farmers market and grocery store which can result in a larger footprint. It is important to
be concerned with our carbon footprint at every stage of food production.
- Locavores have made us become more conscious about the foods we eat and has
changed the food culture despite some of their unfair claims. People think more about
what they buy and the consequences of their purchases.
Chapter 8
- Each religion has their own customs with viewing livestock but they all respect animals
in a certain way. Jewish people consume only kosher foods, Hinduism developed a
deep respect for the cow, medieval Christianity sought to protect livestock in a
movement called the “Peace and Truth of god.”
- Animal protection agencies date back to the 19th century when the first known advocacy
group, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, in 1866 was formed in
Britain. This organization persuaded politicians to pass laws regarding the safe
transportation of livestock on train. This organization paved a way for animal advocate
groups around the world.
- In the 17th century a famed philosopher named Descartes claimed that all animals were
machines and they could not feel emotion. However, in the 19th century the utilitarianism
movement formed and changed people’s views on animals. A 19th century philosopher
named Bentham stated that his concept of utilitarianism was that the suffering of
animals may be of similar moral interest as the suffering of humans. Bentham’s ideas
influenced others as that humans should maximize the total happiness and minimize the
suffering of animals.
- Peter Singer, author of Animal Liberation and The Way We Eat, used Bentham’s
utilitarianism philosophy to argue that most livestock production was immoral, and
people should stop eating such foods. He did not call for people to become vegan
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