HRT 350 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Organizational Culture, Performance Management, Job Performance

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Chapter 6 Training & Development
The Training Process
Training: the process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform
their jobs
How is training different from orientation and socialization
The strategic context of training
o Performance management: the process employers use to make sure employees are
working toward organizational goals
Employee Orientations and Training
The primary objective of orientation programs is to assimilate new employees into the
General orientations are often conducted by training managers or HR managers
Organizational Goals (manage change before training)
Organizational goals and changes
o Mission and vision
o Culture: new corporate values
o Structures: departmental structure, coordination, span of control, reporting
relationships, tasks, decision-making procedures
o Technologies: new systems and methods
Training Responsibilities
Does the primary responsibility for training and development activities rest with HR
exclusively? NO
Management Responsibilities
Operations managers retain ultimate responsibility for training workers
Who is responsible for training night auditors about the “express check-out” procedures?
HR Department’s Responsibilities
Guardian of workplace training budget allocations
o Advising executives on the cost/benefit analysis of training needs
Focus on ‘Learning Gaps’
o Initializing training only when it is necessary and a proven need exists
o Based on needs analysis/assessment
Bad Attitudes?
Can training change attitudes?
o Effective training methods will have an impact on individuals’ knowledge, skills,
abilities, and behaviors
o Training is considered as a solution when a learning gap exists
o Training is not a cure for bad attitudes
Training Costs
US businesses spend approx.. $62 billion a year on training
68% of training costs is spent on salaries of training personnel
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Training methods:
o 73% of training is classroom based
o Remainder is computer based or self-directed
The Training Cycle
Develop & conduct needs assessment
o Conducts Needs Assessment
Determines whether or not a training problem exists in an organization
If a competency gap (or learning gap) is identified, a training problem
o Finding the Gaps
3 areas of focus:
o Culture and Philosophies: do the training program,
promote, or reinforce the organizational culture and
Tasks and behaviors
o Review of KSA’s (knowledge, skills, abilities)
o Identify individual training needs (strengths & weaknesses)
o 12 Methods
Advisory committee: group of managers who review job skills and
Job descriptions & specifications: compared the KSAs in current job
descriptions and specifications to current job performances
Work sampling: training analysts to observe and review actual work
Job performance measurements: analysts identify KSA’s by actually
performing the jobs
Attitude surveys: identify what employees like/dislike about their jobs
Performance appraisals: could be a problem if managers are not trained
Skills test: certain simple tasks can be reviewed
Performance documents: review customer complaints, sales data,
turnover, etc.
Guest feedback: why is this limited?
Questionnaires: why can this be effective?
Exit interviews: How are these useful? Anonymous?
Critical incidents: who records these? What are some limitations
Identify training objectives
o What are the goals of the training program?
Areas for improvement?
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