KIN 365 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Atherosclerosis, Calorie Restriction, Abstinence

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Chapter 1: An Introduction to Aging
1. Primary and secondary aging
a. Aging processes are different from the process of aging
b. Aging processes (primary aging) represent universal changes with age within a
species or population that are independent of disease or environmental influence
c. The process of aging (secondary aging) refers to clinical symptoms such as the
effects of environment and disease
2. Rate of aging
a. Rate of aging is the change in functions of organs and systems per unit of time
b. In normal aging these changes follow a linear sequence over the lifespan
c. The rate at which males age slows monotonically with time
d. Females age at a slower rate between 45 to 60 years than they do between 70 and
80
e. Disease may change the rate of aging and deterioration
3. How we describe age
a. Human survival curve
b. Maximum lifespan potential
c. Average lifespan
d. Life expectancy
4. Human survival curve
a. The human survival curve is the percentage of a population that survives at each
age throughout that survives at each age throughout the lifespan of the entire
population
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b. This is important to describe changes and shifts in the population as well as
understanding the influence these changes
c. Since the mid-19th century the life expectance of the U.S population has nearly
doubled from 40 to 75.9 years
5. Maximum lifespan potential
a. The maximum lifespan potential is the survival potential of members of a
population
6. Average life span
a. The average life span is the average age by which all but a very small percentage
of the members of a population are decreased
b. Most gerontologists agree that the average biological limit to a human life is
approximately 85 years
c. This is because only 12% of the population exceed 85 years of age
7. Life expectancy
a. Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining for a population
of individuals all of the same age
b. This is usually expressed from birth as an average number of years of life that
newborns are expected to live
c. Males= 73 years; females= 79 years
8. Observable physical changes with age
a. Skin and face: wrinkles, sagging, leathering
b. Hair: thinning and graying
c. Height: decreases
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