KIN 365 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Motivation, Homeostasis, Nematode

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Chapter 2: Individual Differences
1. Assessment of individual differences
a. Measured by a spread of scores on a particular variable from the mean
b. Amount of individual difference among people in an experimental group is
measured by standard deviation
c. Standard deviation is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or
dispersion of a set of data values
d. The greater the spread of scores from the mean the less accurate mean is in
estimating individual’s strength
e. Physiological variables tend to have lower individual differences than
performance variables
f. The coefficient of variation represents the ratio of the standard deviation to the
mean and it is a useful statistic for comparing the degree of variation from one
data series to another even if the means are drastically different from each other
2. Sources of individual differences
a. Genetics
i. Everyone is different with unique genotypes
ii. This includes social and physical attributes
b. Lifestyle variations
i. Aging of a system depends on many factors
ii. The aging of the cardiovascular system is affected by:
1. Medications
2. Alcohol use
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3. Smoking
4. Diet
5. Exercise habits
6. Disease
7. Social factors
c. Disease and aging
i. Disease accelerates aging
1. Heart attack
2. Environmental toxic stress
3. Depression
4. Diabetes
5. Cardiovascular disease
6. Stroke
d. Aging of body systems
i. Deterioration of systems is progressive but occurs at different rates across
the sensory and physiological systems
e. Within individual variability
i. Within subjects factors involve comparisons of the same subjects under
different conditions
1. Spread of scores provided by one person about that person’s own
mean
ii. Within group variability
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1. The spread of scores of all individuals in a group around the group
mean
iii. Between group variability
1. Spread of scores of group means around the group mean of means
f. Lifestyle variations
i. Positive health behaviors
1. Good diet
2. Physical activity
3. Sleep
ii. Negative health behaviors
1. Smoking
2. Excess alcohol
3. Excess medication
4. Drug use
5. Stressful situations
6. Lack of sleep
7. Poor diet
g. Compensatory behavior
i. We learn to compensate for inadequacies
ii. Young adults: when lack skill or talent develop compensatory strategies to
achieve their objectives
iii. Adults: develop compensatory strategies when lack skill or talent occurs
h. Gender, culture, education, and socioeconomic status
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