KIN 365 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Menopause, Adipose Tissue, Osteoporosis

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Chapter 3: Physical Development and Decline
1. Changes in the body
a. Height
i. Height also known as stature is usually measured in centimeters or inches
ii. Males typically increase in height up to age 20
iii. Males slowly lose about 4% of their stature by age 70
iv. Females slowly lose about 4% of their stature by age 70
v. Females typically reach their peak height around 18-20 years of age
vi. The loss of height in both men and women is generally caused by
vertebral compression
b. Weight
i. Ranges of healthy weight vary
ii. The prevalence of obesity has increased for all ages over the past 40 years
iii. The average body weight of a female generally continues to increase until
age 45
1. 50 than stabilizes until about age 70
iv. Males follow a similar pattern until about age 40
v. This is followed by a plateau until around age 55 then a gradual decline
c. Body mass index
i. The BMI is a measurement of height divided by weight
ii. The higher the number the more likely an adult is to have a high
proportion of fat
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iii. Though not the most accurate indicator BMI can be considered a more
accurate indicator of total body fat than simply weight alone
iv. Limitations of BMI
1. BMI overestimates body fat in people who are very muscular
2. BMI underestimates body fat in people who
a. Have lost muscle mass with age
b. Have edema (swelling caused by fluid retention)
c. Are less than 5’ 0” in height
2. Changes in body composition
a. Determining age related changes in body size is inadequate for understanding
changes that actually occur
b. Age related changes in body composition have important implications for
successful aging
i. Body fat
ii. Body fat measurements
iii. Body fat distribution
iv. Fat mass changes with age
3. Body fat
a. Generally has negative implications largely due to the media inundating us with
negative aspects
b. A certain level of fat is necessary as
i. A source of energy
ii. A site to store minerals
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