- The process of studying and describing the specific requirements for a job is called job analysis
- A traditional task-based job analysis is sufficient to cover both the operational and the legal
requirements of an organization’s staffing strategy.
- Job analysis is the foundation upon which successful staffing systems are constructed
Types of Job Analysis
- A job requirements job analysis seeks to identify and describe the specific tasks, KSAOs, and job
context for a particular job
- A second type of job analysis, competency-based, attempts to identify and describe job
requirements in the form of general KSAOs required across a range of jobs; task and work
context requirements are of little concern.
- A third approach to job analysis focuses on the rewards employees receive from their work. The
rewards-based approach is used to assess what types of positive outcomes employees receive
from performing a job. Knowing the rewards of a job can be very useful in attracting individuals
to apply for, and ultimately accept, jobs in the organization
- Job requirements analysis is mostly rooted in documenting what employees currently do,
competency analysis focuses on how executives see work roles contributing to strategy, and
rewards analysis determines what employees get from their jobs.
The Changing Nature of Jobs
- The traditional way of designing a job is to identify and define its elements and tasks precisely
and then incorporate them into a job description. The core task includes virtually all tasks
associated with the job, and from it a fairly inclusive list of KSAOs will flow. Traditional jobs are
very static, with little or no change in tasks or KSAOs.
- One challenge to this traditional perspective is that jobs are constantly evolving.
- Secretary = E.G. evolving job.
- Another challenge to the traditional view is the need for flexibility. Flexible jobs have frequently
changing task and KSAO requirements
- Many small-business owners, general managers of start-up strategic business units, and top
management members perform such flexible jobs.
- Team-based work enhances the need for flexibility and further complicates the process of job
- A work team is an interdependent collection of employees who share responsibility for
achieving a specific goal. Goals include = developing a product, delivering a service, winning a
game, developing a plan and etc.
- A project management team may have separate jobs and job titles for budget specialists,
technical specialists, coordinators, and field staff
- Therefore, job analysis for team-based work has to account for this highly varied and constantly
evolving set of task demands.
- One way to incorporate engagement is to consider it a general competency in competency-
based job analysis coupled with job rewards analysis.
Job Requirements Job Analysis - Job requirements job analysis starts with tasks, which are identifiable work activities that are
logical and necessary steps in the performance of the job.
- Task dimensions are groups of similar types of tasks
- A job is a grouping of positions that have similar tasks.
- A job family is a grouping of jobs according to function
- After identifying the tasks of “developing and writing monthly sales and marketing plans” for
- The task and job context information is recorded in a job description, whereas the KSAO
requirements are placed into a job specification.
Job Requirements Matrix
- The job requirements matrix shows the key components of job requirements job analysis, each
of which must be explicitly considered for inclusion in any job requirements job analysis.
- Completion of the cell entries in the matrix represents the information that must be gathered,
analyzed, synthesized, and expressed in usable written form.
- A completed job requirements matrix serves as the basic informational source or document for
any job in terms of its requirements.
- Job analysis begins with the development of task statements.
- Task statements are objectively written descriptions of the major tasks an employee performs
in a job
- Ideally, each task statement will show several things:
o What the employee does, using a specific action verb at the start of the task statement
o To whom or what the employee does what he or she does, stating the object of the verb
o What is produced, indicating the expected output of the verb
o What equipment, materials, tools, or procedures are used
- Differences in task statements are not necessarily an indication of error
- A useful way to facilitate the grouping process is to create a task dimension matrix.
o Each column in the matrix represents a potential task dimension, and a label is
tentatively attached to it.
o Each row in the matrix represents a particular task statement.
- The goal is to have each task statement assigned to only one task dimension
o Task dimension creations are optional and should occur only if they will be useful
o There are many different grouping procedures, ranging from straightforward
judgmental ones to highly sophisticated statistical ones .
- As a rule, there should be four to eight dimensions, depending on the number of task
Importance of Tasks/Dimensions
- Before actual weighting can occur, two decisions must be made
o Specific attribute to be assessed in terms of importance must be decided o Whether the attribute will be measured in categorical terms
- KSAOs are inferred or derived from knowledge of the tasks and task dimensions themselves.
- The development and refinement of the O*NET database is ongoing, and many new
observations from both job incumbents and trained analysts are being added regularly.
- Use of O*NET information is a helpful starting point in preparing KSAO statements, but they will
probably have to be supplemented with more job-specific statements crafted by the job analyst.