PSY 150 Lecture 10: psy ch. 10 notes
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 150
Professor
Aghvinian
Semester
Spring

Description
Sex, Gender, and Sexuality Biological Sex → physical factors that determine the sex of a person ● Sex chromosomes; Female (XX) and Male (XY) ● Sex glands: hormones that release sex hormones needed for reproduction ( ovaries and estrogen; testes and testosterone) ● Primary sex characteristics: changes during puberty directly related to reproduction - Mature internal organs (uterus/ovaries and egg cells, testes and sperm cells), menarche: first menstrual period ● Secondary sex characteristics: changes during puberty indirectly related to reproduction - Increase in fat, defining of waist, increase in muscle mass, deepened voice, facial hair, etc. Gender does not equal biological sex ● Biological sex, the physical aspects of being male or female, is different from gender, the social differences between being male or female. - Most people feel that their gender matches their biological sex - 1 to 3% of the population reports being transgender, meaning they feel that their gender is different from their biological sex. ● In addition, gender can extend beyond the two traditional choices of male and female. - Some people don’t feel especially male or female - Other people may feel more male in some situations and more female in others. ● We simply do not know how many people experience gender nonconformity Is biological sex reflected in our brains? ● There are very small differences between the brains of males and females ● These differences are not necessarily caused by sex difference: the social environment also shapes how our brain develops, and males and females experience different environments in our society ● According to the gender similarities hypothesis, males and females are similar in most psychological processes Why are males more physically aggressive than females? ● Some research has linked physical aggression with levels of testosterone, and males typically have more testosterone than females. ● Studies find relationships in levels of testosterone, in addition to increased activity in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex ● However, research on human subjects does not confirm a clear cause-and-effect relationship between hormone levels and aggressive behaviors ● The effect of testosterone on aggression appears to be mediated by social and cultural factors Is there an in between? ● Intersexuality: when an individual does not clearly fall into the binary of being biologically male or female - Caster semenya ● Can be due to abnormalities in: - Sex chromosomes (Klinefelter syndrome XXY-merging of sperm and egg cell that create combination of XX and XY to form new zygote) - Hormones Gender ● The social, cultural, and biological aspects of masculinity or femininity Gender schemas & stereotypes ● Organizing information about gender into categories such as gender roles or gender identity ● Gender stereotypes → most commonly held beliefs about gender
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