PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
1) Define peripheral nervous system. Contrast components of the PNS and CNS; identify the
basic divisions and subdivisions.
2) Compare locations of cranial nerves and spinal nerves.
3) Classify sensory receptors based on stimulus detected (mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors,
chemoreceptors, nociceptors, photoreceptors).
4) Differentiate between root and ramus.
5) Define nerve plexus; name the four major nerve plexuses (cervical, brachial, sacral, and
lumbar) and identify body regions served by major nerves from each plexus.
6) Describe the causes and symptoms conditions discussed in lecture that may include
paraplegia, quadriplegia, shingles, migraine headaches, myasthenia gravis, polio, and
7) Define autonomic nervous system; identify its effectors, describe its basic functions, and
explain the relationship of the ANS to the PNS as a whole.
8) Describe the autonomic nervous system in terms of types of effectors, number of neurons
forming the pathway, types of ganglia associated with each system, and neurotransmitters
9) Identify the basic divisions of the ANS. Describe the functional differences between the
sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions; explain “fight, flight, or fright” and “rest and
10) Describe the basic anatomical features of the parasympathetic division; explain how the
parasympathetic system relates to the brain, cranial nerves, and sacral spinal cord.
11) Describe the basic anatomical features of the sympathetic division; explain how the
sympathetic division relates to the thoracic-lumbar spinal cord and spinal nerves.
12) Compare and contrast the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the
following organs: heart, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, and (optional) lungs.
13) Explain the role of the adrenal medulla as a major organ in the sympathetic division.
14) Explain how dermatomes are related to the sensory innervation regions of the spinal nerves. Outline: PNS
I. Functional Components
A. Somatic Sensory: tough, pain pressure from skin
B. Visceral Sensor: not consciously,
C. Somatic Motor: motor information back out to skeletal muscles
D. Visceral Motor: carry motor information out to your visceral organs
II. Structural Components
A. Sensory Receptors: respond to stimulus and initiate an action potential in sensory neurons
B. Nerves & Ganglia: packaging of axons
C. Motor Endings: innervate end structures (cells)
III. Classification of Sensory Receptors
Simple Dendrite free nerve ending
Complex specialized cell
B. Type of stimuli they detect
C. Location in body
IV. Stimulus types
A. Mechanoreceptors: mechanical (pressure change)
Allow you to respond to light touch
Root hair plexus: responds to movement of hair follicle
Proprioceptors nerve ending wrapped around muscle fibers, tendons, or joint
capsules that respond to stretch
AWARENESS OF MOVEMENT
Cerebellum uses information to determine where our body parts are in space
B. Thermoreceptors: Temperature
Free nerve endings
C. Chemoreceptors: chemical
Taste and Smell
D. Photoreceptors: light
Respond to light (found in retina of eye)
E. Nociceptors: pain
Free nerve endings that respond to mechanical thermal or chemical stimuli
Pain is an emotional way our brain interprets stimulus
CQ: What are proprioceptors, and where might you find them?
A. Mechanoreceptors found in the cerebellum that help coordinate movement. B. Motor neurons that synapse with skeletal muscle fibers and initiate a skeletal muscle
C. Free nerve endings found around skeletal muscle fibers that detect stretch in the fiber
when it moves.
D. Soft touch receptors found just below the epidermis that allow for increased sensitivity.
Motor unit 1 somatic motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates
Neuromuscular junction locat