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Lecture 13

EBIO 2070 Lecture 13: 13_PNSandANS

6 Pages

Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Course Code
EBIO 2070
Jeffry Mitton

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PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM LEARNING GOALS 1) Define peripheral nervous system. Contrast components of the PNS and CNS; identify the basic divisions and subdivisions. 2) Compare locations of cranial nerves and spinal nerves. 3) Classify sensory receptors based on stimulus detected (mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors, nociceptors, photoreceptors). 4) Differentiate between root and ramus. 5) Define nerve plexus; name the four major nerve plexuses (cervical, brachial, sacral, and lumbar) and identify body regions served by major nerves from each plexus. 6) Describe the causes and symptoms conditions discussed in lecture that may include paraplegia, quadriplegia, shingles, migraine headaches, myasthenia gravis, polio, and postpolio syndrome. 7) Define autonomic nervous system; identify its effectors, describe its basic functions, and explain the relationship of the ANS to the PNS as a whole. 8) Describe the autonomic nervous system in terms of types of effectors, number of neurons forming the pathway, types of ganglia associated with each system, and neurotransmitters released. 9) Identify the basic divisions of the ANS. Describe the functional differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions; explain “fight, flight, or fright” and “rest and digest.” 10) Describe the basic anatomical features of the parasympathetic division; explain how the parasympathetic system relates to the brain, cranial nerves, and sacral spinal cord. 11) Describe the basic anatomical features of the sympathetic division; explain how the sympathetic division relates to the thoracic-lumbar spinal cord and spinal nerves. 12) Compare and contrast the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the following organs: heart, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, and (optional) lungs. 13) Explain the role of the adrenal medulla as a major organ in the sympathetic division. 14) Explain how dermatomes are related to the sensory innervation regions of the spinal nerves. Outline: PNS I. Functional Components A. Somatic Sensory: tough, pain pressure from skin B. Visceral Sensor: not consciously, C. Somatic Motor: motor information back out to skeletal muscles D. Visceral Motor: carry motor information out to your visceral organs II. Structural Components A. Sensory Receptors: respond to stimulus and initiate an action potential in sensory neurons B. Nerves & Ganglia: packaging of axons C. Motor Endings: innervate end structures (cells) III. Classification of Sensory Receptors A. Structural Simple Dendrite free nerve ending Complex specialized cell B. Type of stimuli they detect C. Location in body IV. Stimulus types A. Mechanoreceptors: mechanical (pressure change) Meissners Corpuscle  Allow you to respond to light touch Root hair plexus: responds to movement of hair follicle Proprioceptors  nerve ending wrapped around muscle fibers, tendons, or joint capsules that respond to stretch AWARENESS OF MOVEMENT Cerebellum uses information to determine where our body parts are in space B. Thermoreceptors: Temperature Free nerve endings C. Chemoreceptors: chemical Taste and Smell D. Photoreceptors: light Respond to light (found in retina of eye) E. Nociceptors: pain Free nerve endings that respond to mechanical thermal or chemical stimuli Pain is an emotional way our brain interprets stimulus CQ: What are proprioceptors, and where might you find them? A. Mechanoreceptors found in the cerebellum that help coordinate movement. B. Motor neurons that synapse with skeletal muscle fibers and initiate a skeletal muscle contraction. C. Free nerve endings found around skeletal muscle fibers that detect stretch in the fiber when it moves. D. Soft touch receptors found just below the epidermis that allow for increased sensitivity. Sensory Output Motor unit  1 somatic motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates Neuromuscular junction  locat
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