GEOL 3070 Lecture 23: Life in the Sea

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University of Colorado - Boulder
Geological Sciences
GEOL 3070
Thomas Marchitto

Life in the Sea Saturday, April 15, 2017 12:14 PM 1. TaxonomicClassification • Linnaeus: based on physical characteristics Kingdom Modern Addition (1977): five kingdoms into 3 domains, based largely on genome (DNA) Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Domains: Kingdoms: Bacteria Monera (single-celled, no nucleus) Archaea Eukarya Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia A. Domain Bacteria • Cyanobacteria: (blue-green algae) are important photosynthetic autotrophs • Diverse heterotrophic bacteria are essential for respiring organic matter back int2 CO and other nutrients B. Domain Archaea • Different genes & metabolic pathways than bacteria • "Extremophiles" --> in terms of temp., salinity, pH • Maybe like the first life on Earth C. Kingdom Protista • Single or multicellular • Algae: coccolithophores, diatoms, seaweed (photosynthetic) • Protozoa: foraminifera, radiolaria (hetertrophic --> need to eat other organisms for energy D. Kingdom Fungi • Molds & lichens • Extracellular decomposers • Few marine forms, mostly intertidal (99% terrestrial) E. Kingdom Plantae • Vascular photosynthesizers • Few marine form, mostly intertidal • Sea grasses, mangrove trees F. Kingdom Animalia • Sponges to whales • Heterotrophs • Invertebrates & vertebrates • Invertebrates & vertebrates II. Classificationby Habitat and Mobility A. Plankton (drifters) • Drift with currents • May be able to swim weakly • May migrate vertically (day/night), but most remain near sea surface ○ Modify buoyancy (Δ oil in body and air bubbles) • Vast majority of ocean's biomass is plankton 1. Phytoplankton 2. Zooplankton a. Heterotrophs b. Foraminifera, radiolaria, copepods, jellyfish, fish larvae 3. Picoplankton a. Very tiny (< 5µm) b. Cyanobacteria --> ~100,000,000/L c. Viruses -- non-cellular pseudo-life i. DNA/RNA inside a protein shell ii. ~20-250 nm & ~10,000,000,000/L B. Nekton (swimmers) • Swim independently of
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