MCDB 2150 Lecture 6: Class 6 RNA Processing

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RNA Processing
Class Notes
DNA in transcribed into RNA, RNA is translated into
amino acids
Coding sequence of a gene:
o Introns: the “loops” are regions of DNA that do
not correspond to the RNA sequence
The length of an amino acid sequence: usually shorter than the number
of nucleotides in the gene divided by 3
Steps of mRNA processing:
o Introns are spiced out after transcription
o Consensus sequences: 5’ splice site and 3’ splice site
o Spliceosome cuts the RNA and reseals it
Mutation in splice site: can have dramatic affects
o A base change within the normal splice site can cause the spice site to be non-functional
and that intron will not be removed
Will cause mutant mature mRNA to be longer because the intron is included
5’ cap and 3’ poly A tail RNA processing event:
o 5’ cap: added to 5’ end of RNA
o 3’ poly A tail: added to 3’ end of the mRNA after cleavage
o 5’ cap and 3’ poly A tail function:
Increase stability of mRNA by protecting it from
nucleases
Transport mRNA to cytoplasm
Play a role in the initiation of translation
Alternative splicing: a single gene can code for variants of the
same protein
o Pre-mRNA 3’ cleavage and polyadenylation (Poly A
tail) alternative splicing
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