PSCI 2223 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Unconventional Warfare, Universal Jurisdiction, Conventional Warfare

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Unconventional Warfare and Universal Jurisdiction
Unconventional warfare:
Conventional warfare…
o Mass armies engaging one another on the battlefield using typical weapons (i.e.
guns, tanks, grenades).
Unconventional warfare…
o Combatants stage raids, ambushes, or sabotage in rural areas.
o Includes terrorism…
Dissident terrorism: Armed groups resort to terrorist attacks.
State terrorism: States target their own population.
State sponsored terrorism: States support terrorist groups.
Universal jurisdiction:
International law…
o The international system is anarchic.
o Anarchy creates a relationship between equals.
o States can make agreements with each other, but who will enforce these
o Why do states keep promises?
o Q. are there any rules in the international system to govern state’s behavior?
States enter into international institutions voluntarily.
o War in the international system…
When is war justified?
Are there moral/legal limits to violence?
When is a war considered a just war?
o Elements of just war…
Just cause (self-defense).
War is the absolute last resort after all other means have been tried.
War must be declared publically and by a legitimate authority (the state).
War must be proportionate to the threat (i.e. you can’t declare war
because another president said something mean about you).
Proper battlefield conduct must take place (i.e. conventional warfare).
o Just war as stated in the U.N. charter…
War must be used only for self-defense (stated in article 51).
War is the final solution (stated in article 33).
o Preemptive war…
Defense against imminent aggression.
There must be a threat to a country’s peace.
o Preventive war…
Military action against a state who is not an imminent threat, but could
become one.
o Sources of international law…
Treaties (i.e. the Geneva Conventions of 1949).
Customary law (i.e. sense of duty).
Judicial decisions by courts and international tribunals.
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