NSG 230 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Dietary Fiber, Glycemic Index, Monosaccharide

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14 May 2019
Nutrition, Weight, and Exercise
Well balanced diet low in fat and high in fruits and vegetables
o It plays a significant role in preventing cardiovascular disease, cancer,
diabetes, etc.
o 2,000 calories a day is to maintain your weight, not to lose weight
o Grains whole grains
Has the seed in tact
Ex. White bread is not whole grain and full of sugar
o Gives us our energy
o Simple carbohydrate
Sugars such as sucrose, glucose, fructose and lactose
Found in foods such as fruit, ice cream and ketchup
These foods are high on the glycemic index and are often high in
fat as well
Consumption can lead to cardiovascular disease, harmful dental
health, and other chronic condition
Ex. Candy, sugary cereals, certain condiments, certain salad
dressings, ice cream, syrups, sugar drinks etc.
Gives you a really quick energy boost
Causes problems with pancreas
o Complex carbohydrates
Starches such as breads, cereals, legumes, rice, pastas and starch
vegetables such as beans and potatoes
They take longer to digest than simple carbs so they are a good
long term source of energy
Has fiber in it
They are lower in the glycemic index than simple carbs
o Glycemic Index - Measures how fast glucose enters the bloodstream after
a carbohydrate is eaten and thus how the carbohydrate increases a persons
blood sugar
o Soluble absorbs water in the digestive tract
Ex. Oats
It helps lower blood LDL cholesterol
o Insoluble remains unchanged during digestion and adds bulk to stool
Ex. Wheat bran, whole grain breads, cereals, broccoli, carrots, and
A high fiber diet lower the risk for heart disease, high blood
pressure and diabetes
o Framework for muscles, bones, blood, hair and fingernails
o Main source of amino acids
Amino acids building blocks that construct, repair and maintain
body tissue
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