Non-democracy can include many different types of regime. Non-democracy: when a political regime is controlled by a small group of individuals who exercise power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public. Can be very effective; sometimes create a sense of legitimacy. Coercion and surveillance: coercion - compelling individuals by threatening their lives of livelihoods; surveillance - monitoring to make people sure they will be caught if they break the rules e. g. - stasi in east germany. Co-optation: making potential rivals into allies by giving them a stake in maintaining the regime. Corporatism: organizations outside regime are created or sponsored by it. All of society becomes part of the state. Clientelism: buy off a person or group with specific rewards/privileges. Personality cults: make the ruler appear special or unique to justify their rule e. g. - stalin; kim jong ii. Good for creating legitimacy; ruler has power because he or she is special.