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Lecture 19

ANAT 103 Lecture 19: ANAT103 CH19

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Drexel University
ANAT 103
Mary Flynn

ANAT 103 CH 19 Blood - A liquid connective tissue made of cells surrounded by plasma (liquid extracellular matrix) - Components: - Formed Elements (45%): - RBC (erythrocytes) 99% - Transport Oxygen from lungs → cells - Deliver CO2 from cells → lungs - % Total blood volume of RBC is hematocrit - WBC (leukocytes) - Protect body from pathogens and foreign substances - Normal ratio of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils - Lymphocytes: B Cells, T Cells and Natural Killers - Can live for years unlike other formed elements - Amount of WBC depend on invading pathogens and antigens - Platelets (thrombocytes) - Release chemicals for blood clottings - Plasma (55%) → on top - Water: - Absorb, transport and release heat - Protein: - Fibrinogen → clots blood - Globulins → Antibodies/ Immunoglobulins for immunity - Albumins → osmotic attraction - Solutes: - Electrolyte, nutrients, gas, regulatory substance, waste - Functions: - Transports - Oxygen from the Lungs → Interstital fluid → Cells - Nutrients and Hormones from the Gi and Endocrine→ IF → Cells - CO2 from the Cells → Interstitial Fluid → Blood → Lungs - Waste and Heat → IF → Blood → organs of elimination - Regulates - homeostasis of all body fluids, pH, body temp, and water content of cells - Protects against: - excess loss by clotting - infections through the use of white blood cells Hemopoieses - Process of making formed elements of blood cells - Mainly in the Red Bone Marrow Pluripotent Stem Cells: - Red bone marrow cells from mesenchyme - Develop into different type of blood cells (stem cells) Formation of Blood Cells - Pluripotent Cells in bone marrow produce two other types of stem cells: - Myeloid Stem Cells - Make RBC, platelets, Monocytes, Basophils, Eosinophil and Mast Cells - Lymphoid Stem Cells - Make B and T lymphocytes and Natural Killers - Myeloid Cells can differentiate into progenitor (cannot reproduce but give rise to specialized cells; CFU) or precursor cells - Lymphoid Cells (and Myeloid) become precursor cells (blasts) - Cell divisions develop the cells into formed elements of blood (T Cell, B Cell, NK) RBC (ethrocytes) - Contain hemoglobin: - Functions: - Carries Oxygen to cells - gives blood a red color - carries CO2 to the lungs - Regulate blood flow and pressure by releasing nitric oxide - Nitric oxide causes vasodilation (increased diameter) that improves the blood flow and enhance oxygen delivery - Appearance of Hemoglobin: - Consist of globulin protein (4 subunits) with 4 hemes at each subunit and iron in the center of each ring - iron ion allows 4 Oxygens to bind (1 Oxygen for each heme/Iron) - Hemoglobin locks down (forms a cage) when oxygen is bound to it and travels (where there is a lot of oxygen) - Lack of environmental oxygen = opens cage and releases the oxygen - Appearance od RBC: - Biconcave Disks for gas diffusion - No nucleus or organelles (no energy source) which allow it to carry oxygen - Flexible plasma membrane to squeeze through narrow capillaries and vessels - Cannot replicate (live for 120 days) - Dead cells removed by the spleen and liver - Contains carbonic anhydrase which starts conversion of CO2 + H2O → carbonic acid - Carbonic acid transports Co2 in the plasma to the lungs and acts as a buffer - Component: - Surface of erythrocytes/RBC have proteins (antigens) composed of glycoprotein and glycolipids (agglutinogens) - Antigens are labeled: A, B, AB, O (can be given to anyone) - Blood Plasma has Antibodies/ Agglutinins that react with A or B Antigens: - A antibodies attack B - B antibodies attack A - AB antibodies attack -- (no antibodies) - O antibodies attack A and B - Blood Type B = B antigens on the RBC and anti-A antibodies in plasma - Cannot receive AB - Blood Type A = A antigens and anti-B antibodies - Cannot receive AB - Blood Type AB = A and B antigens and no antibodies - Universal recipient (can receieve all) - Blood Type O = No antigens and both anti-A and B antibodies - Only receive O blood (Universal doner ) Transfusion - Typing and Cross-Mating is performed to determine blood type - Drops of blood is mixed w/ antisera and then mixed with anti-A serum that will agglutinate blood with A antigens and same with anti-B serum. - If the RBC cells agglutinate only with anti-A serum then it is Type A; if it agglutinate with both anti-A and B, then its AB; if it doesnt agglutinate at all, then its O - RH antibody serum will only agglutinate RH+ blood - Incompatible transfusion: - Antibodies of the recipeiens binds to antigens of donated RBC and cause agglutination (clumping) - Plasma proteins are activated and cause hemolysis (rupture) of the donated RBC Erythropoiesis - Production of RBCs in the red bone marrow with precursor cell, Proerythroblast - Proerythroblast divides and produces cells that make hemoglobin - The cell will eject its nucleus, become a biconcave shape - If the Oxygen carrying capacity of the blood falls or if erythropiesis is not keeping up with RBC destruction, a negative feedback system takes place - Hypoxia: cellular oxygen deficiency - Stimulates kidneys to release erythropoietin which speeds differentiation of stem cells → RBC (erythrocytes) to increase # of RBC and oxygen delivery - Things that reduce oxygen delivery/ amount: - High
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