CHEM 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Phenyl Group, Triple Point, Alkyne

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4 Feb 2017
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Ch 13 and 22 Chem
Phase Diagram
- Map of the phase of a substance as a function of pressure (y) and temp (x)
- Solid, liquid and gas regions represents a stable state
- Low temp and high pressure = solid
- High temp and low pressure = gas
- Lines
- Represents a set of temperatures and pressures where the substance is in equilibrium
between the 2 states on each side
- Vaporization curve separates L and G
- Temp stops rising until all liquid is gas (going →)
- Pressure stops dropping until all liquid is gas (going )
- Sublimation curve separates S and G
- Fusion curve separates S and L
- Temp stops rising and melting occurs until everything is liquid
- Triple point
- 3 states stable and equal
- Critical point
- Represents temp and pressure above where a supercritical fluid exists
Carbon
- Ability to:
- form 4 covalent bonds, form double and triple bonds and tendency to catenate (form
chains, branches or rings)
Hydrocarbons
- Have only C and H
- Four types:
- Alkane C-C 2฀+2
- Alkene C=C 2฀
- Alkyne CC2฀2
- Aromatic hydrocarbons benzene ring
- Aliphatic hydrocarbon
- Alkane, alkene and alkyne
Structural isomers
- Molecules w/ the same molecular formula but different structures
Structural formula
- Shows number of each kind of atom and how they are bonded
- Shows all C and H atoms and how they are bonded
Alkanes
- Single bonds
- Saturated hydrocarbons
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- Boiling point increases as the number of carbons increase due to increased dispersion force and
increased molar mass
n
name
1
meth
2
eth
3
prop
4
but
5
Pent
6
hex
7
hept
8
oct
9
non
10
dec
Naming Alkanes
- Base chain determines name
- Substituents (alkyl groups) branch off the base chain
- They are atoms that are substituted for a H atom in a compound
Alkyl Groups
Name
methyl
ethyl
propyl
butyl
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Alkene and alkynes
Alkenes
n
name
2
ethene
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