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Lecture 1

COM 111 Lecture 1: Com 111 Full Class Notes

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COM 111
Farkas Ashley

COM 111 Communication: A systematic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings Communication is a​ process​. It’s ongoing and dynamic. Communication takes place within a ​system​. A system consists of interrelated parts that affect one another. ● Openness​: The extent to which a system affects and is affected by outside factor and processes ● Homeostasis​: A state of equilibrium. No living system can sustain absolute balance or equilibrium. Communication is ​Symbolic​. We rely on symbols, which are abstract, arbitrary, and ambiguous representations of other things, to communicate. Communication is about ​meanings ● Content level of meaning contains the literal message ● Relationship level of meaning expresses the relationship between communicators Linear Model of Communication Encode Decode Linear ● Howard Laswell (1948) ● Shannon & Weaver (1949) Components ● Sender COM 111 ● Message ● Receiver Interactive Model of Communication Wilbur Schamm (1995) Builds on linear model ● Include feedback (verbal or nonverbal) ● Encoder/Source/Decoder ● Message ● Decoder/Receiver/Encoder Transactional Model ● Captures the dynamism of human communication: People often communicate simultaneously as both receiver and sender ● Portrays communication as changing over time COM 111 Careers in Communication ● Research ● Training and communication ● Education ● Broadcasting, public relations, and advertising ● Non-profit ● Human relations and management ● Mass communication Journalism:​ How to listen carefully and critically when conducting an interview. How to write reports and news clearly Advertising:​ “Advertising is a field that demands good listening and written communication skills. Someone who plans a career in advertising should be a good people person.” HR & Management: ​Public relations, personnel management, negotiation, customer relations, and development and fundraising all require strong and solid understandings of communication skills. COM 111 Perception: Step 1 Selection 1. Intensity of experience 2. Self concepts 3. Needs and motives-selective exposure Perception: Step 2 Organization ● We organize our perception in a meaningful way Constructivism ● Theory of how we organize and interpret our experiences by applying cognitive schemata Cognitive Schemata Prototype: ​What you want to perceive people as Stereotype:​ What you predict people will be like Personal Construct:​ Beautiful or not beautiful, boring o interesting Script:​ Ex: saying good morning to people in the morning COM 111 Interpretation:​ The subjective process of creating explanations for what we observe and experience Interpretation can be based on 1. Your personal experience ● Were past experiences positive or negative? 2. Your knowledge ● What do you know of the person 3. The closeness of your relationship ● Is your relationship such that the behavior is expected? Attributions:​ The act of explaining why a person acts a certain way or something happens Dimensions of Attributions ● Locus: Where is the cause of the behavior “located”? Such as: internal psychological factors vs external context factors ● Stability: Is the cause of a behavior stable? Such as: Is she a nervous person? Vs is she nervous bc of the exam ● Specificity: Is the cause of a behavior specific? Such as: She’s intelligent vs she’s good at math ● Responsibility: Is the behavior within the person’s control? Such as: walking in front of a car vs a car crashing into your home The Self Serving Bias​: We tend to construct attributions that serve our personal interests Ex: You explain a success in internal and stable attributes “I am a dedicated person and worked hard” Ex: You explain a failure in external and unstable attributes “I would have done better if my car had not broke down” COM 111 Communication is a ​mosaic​, each part of which contributes to the whole field. Rebus Principle:​ The mapping of pictographic symbols to phonetic values. Both egyptians and the mesopotamians understood this. The Art of Rhetoric was born in the mid-400’s BC, highly influenced by Aristotle. Corax and Tisias taught citizens how to use speech to recover their property taken by the former government in law courts. Rhetoric: ​The art of identifying and using the best available means in a given situation to ethically persuade an audience. In the 1800’s and early 1900’s, Rhetoric was taught as a practical art that prepared people for responsible participation in civic life. In the early 20th century, John Dewey championed progressive thinking. Beginning in the 1960’s communication becomes the prominent tool for power in cultural life. Helped the civil rights and women’s movement. Michel Foucault:​ Studied who is and who is not allowed to speak in society. Dominant groups shape our roles and positions in culture and society. COM 111 History of Sexuality by Michel Foucault:​ Repressive hypothesis: The discourse of sex was controlled and manipulated by the dominated groups. The Breadth of the Communication Field: ● Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Intercultural ● Group & Team, Public ● Organizational, Mass Media Intrapersonal:​ Communication with ourselves, self talk. Similar to thinking. Interpersonal: ​Communication between people. The more we interact with a person as a distinct individual, the more interpersonal the communication is. Group & Team: ​Focuses on leadership, member roles, group dynamics, agendas for achieving group goals, and managing conflict. Public:​ Focuses on public speaking. An argument, or political communication. Organizational:​ Focuses substantial attention on organizational culture, which is an understanding of identity and codes of thought and action that are shared by members of an organization. Mass Media:​ How media represents and influences cultural values. Computer Mediated Communication (CMC):​ Focuses on how newer technologies and the accompanying acceleration of the pace of interaction influences our lives. Intercultural​: Focuses on different culture’s communication styles and meanings. (Ex: engaging in classroom discussion). COM 111 Additional Areas of Study:​ Ethics, Health communication, Journalism, Performance Studies, Religious Communication, Speech and Hearing Unifying Themes in the Comm
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