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Lecture 1

PSY 101 Lecture 1: INTRO TO GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 101
Professor
Jeremy Michael Tyler

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Psychology 101
INTRO TO GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY.
Psychology is defined as the scientific study of behavior and the mind.
Behavior are the actions and responses that are directly observable.
Mind are the internal mental states and processes that are not directly observable.
The goals of Psychology are.
To describe how people and other species behave.
To understand the causes of these behaviors.
To predict how people and other animals will behave under certain circumstances.
To influence behavior through the control of its causes.
To apply psychological knowledge in ways that enhance human welfare.
The Biopsychological Approach.
Biological influences.
Genetic predispositions, brain mechanisms, hormonal.
Psychological influences.
Learned fears, emotional responses, cognitive processing.
Social-Cultural influences.
Presence of others.
Cultural, societal and family expectations.
Peer and other group influences.
Influence of the media and other models.
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Perspectives are the different ways of viewing people. It serves as lenses through which psychologists examine
and interpret behavior. It is influenced by psychology, medicine, sociology, anthropology…
There are different perspectives:
Psychodynamic Perspective searches for the causes of behavior within the inner workings of our personality
emphasizing the role of unconscious processes. Psychoanalysis is the analysis of internal and primarily
unconscious psychological forces in 1896. It was developed by Sigmund Freud.It developed out of Freud’s
treatments of hysteria and phobias both of which manifested in physical symptoms with no apparent physical
cause. Since the patients did not know what was causing their symptoms, he reasoned that the cause must be
unconscious.
Behavioral Perspective focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions. The origins
of the behavioral perspectives is the:
Tabula Rusa (John Locke) meaning that we are blank slates at birth we then are shaped by the environment.
(Ivan Pavlov), he conducted experiments on the salvation of dogs and found that behavior can be shaped by
association.
Edward Thorndike with the Law of effect stated that positive consequences will increase the chances of a
behavior recurring.
Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior. The most famous were John B. Watson and B.F.
Skinner. They believed that psychology should only study observable behavior not unobservable inner
consciousness like functionalism, structuralism, and psychoanalysis. For behaviorists, behavior is determined by
prior learning experiences, patterns of rewards and punishments and the stimuli within your current
environment.
Humanistic Perspective is the rejection of behaviorist and psychodynamic theories. It gained attention in
1960’s with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow as pioneers. It emphasizes free will, personal growth, and the
attempt to find one’s existence. It is a reaction against theories such as psychoanalysis and behaviorism which
believe that the individual has very little personal control. There is a need for love and acceptance. The ultimate
goal is self-actualization, which is the inborn motive to reach one’s full potential. If raised in a supportive
environment, individuals will naturally strive toward self-actualization. Pathology occurs when the
environment frustrates us and blocks us from reaching self-actualization. Humanistic psychology inspired the
modern positive psychology movement which emphasizes the study of human strengths, fulfillment and
optimal living.
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Cognitive Perspective examines the nature of the mind and how mental processes influence behavior, humans
are information processors whose actions are governed by thought. It started with the 1920’s German School
of Gestalt Psychology which emphasized how elements of experience are organized into wholes. The mind
operated like a computer, analyzing incoming information that directly influences the output. Your behavior
is determined by your cognition (thought) of images, phrases, and memories.
Sociocultural Perspective is an aspect of social psychology that explores how culture is transmitted to its
members and looks at the similarities and differences of people across cultures. One of the major ways to
classify societies is based on whether they are individualistic or collectivistic.
Individualism emphasizes on personal goals and self-identity based one one’s own attributes and
achievements.
Collectivism emphasizes group goals, personal identity is defined primarily by family relationships and
membership in other social groups.
It examines how the social environment and cultural learning influence our behavior, thoughts, and feelings.
Culture is the enduring values, beliefs, behaviors and traditions that are shared by a large group of people
and passed from one generation to the next.
Norms are rules that specify what behavior is acceptable and expected for members of that group. They are
determined by culture.
Socialization is the process by which culture is transmitted to new members internalized by them.
Biological Perspective is the behavior determined by genetics, brain chemistry and medical model. Behavior
can be modified by psychotropic medicine, surgery or medical procedures. It examines how brain processes
and other bodily functions regulate behavior. Behavioral Neuroscience examines brain processes and other
psychological functions that underline our behavior, sensory experiences, emotions, and thoughts. A large part
of it is research in neurotransmitters, which are chemicals released by nerve cells that allow them to
communicate with one another.
Psychologists do:
Therapy.
Individual or group.
Inpatient, outpatient, intensive outpatient.
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Description
Psychology 101 INTRO TO GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY. Psychology is defined as the scientific study of behavior and the mind. Behavior are the actions and responses that are directly observable. Mind are the internal mental states and processes that are not directly observable. The goals of Psychology are. To describe how people and other species behave. To understand the causes of these behaviors. To predict how people and other animals will behave under certain circumstances. To influence behavior through the control of its causes. To apply psychological knowledge in ways that enhance human welfare. The Biopsychological Approach. Biological influences. Genetic predispositions, brain mechanisms, hormonal. Psychological influences. Learned fears, emotional responses, cognitive processing. SocialCultural influences. Presence of others. Cultural, societal and family expectations. Peer and other group influences. Influence of the media and other models.
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