PSY 240 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Albert Bandura, Learned Helplessness, Psychopathology
Early research on classical conditioning: simple associations are learned between two things that tend to occur together. Later research indicated that it is not always that simple influenced by higher-order cognitive processes. Learn to repeat behaviors followed by desirable consequences and decrease behaviors followed by undesirable consequences. First demonstrated in animal models, but may contribute to the maintenance of depression. Gave up trying to control the shocks if attempts were ineffective (i. e. , learned not to bother trying) Modeling and observational learning: learn to copy the behaviors that seem to turn out well for other people. The contributions of behavioral and cognitive science. It is easier to learn associations that would have been helpful to our ancestors. Example: easier to acquire a fear of spiders because it was adaptive for our ancestors to fear (possibly poisonous) spiders. There may be a dissociation between behavior and consciousness. Acting on the basis of experiences that are not recalled.