DEVELOPING THROUGH THE LIFE SPAN.
Developmental psychology examines biological, physical, psychological, and behavioral changes that occur as we
age. The issues in developmental psychology are.
Nature and Nurture. How do genes and experience guide development over our lifespan. You can be
predisposed genetically but not have the proper environment to activate a gene.
Change and stability. In what ways do we change as we age, and in what ways do we stay the same?Life requires
both, stability and change. Stability provides our identity. It enables us to depend on others and be concerned
about childrens healthy development. Our potential for change gives us hope for a brighter future. it motivates
our concern about present influences and lets us adapt and grow with experience.
Continuity vs. Stages. Is development a gradual change or are there some leaps to a new way of thinking or
behaving. Biological maturation coupled with experience and learning. There are pre-set stages, that are age
linked, to all humans go through in development. The pace at which one goes through them and they even
complete them all vary. Some stages are experience based.
Cognition refers to the mental activities that help us function like:
Figuring out how the world works.
Developing models and concepts.
Storing and retrieving knowledge.
Understanding and using language.
Using self-talk and inner thoughts.
Jena Piaget (1896-1980), studied the errors in cognition made by children in order to understand in what ways
they think differently than adults. She proposed that childrens thinking changes qualitative with age. Results
from an interaction of the brains biological maturation and personal experiences.
A Schema is a concept that organizes and interprets information. An infants mind works hard to make sense of
our experiences in the world. Schemas can take form of images, models, and/or concepts.
Assimilation is the process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas. An example, the
concept of family grows to include cousins, aunts
1Accommodation is the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change. Disequilibrium is an
imbalance between existing schemas and new experiences. An example, growing up religious and thinking its
great and going to college and thinking its not so great.
Jean Piaget believed that cognitive development is a combination of nature and nurture. Children grow by
maturation as well as by learning through interacting/playing with the environment. She also believed that
cognitive development is not one continuous of progression of change.
ISSUE JEAN PIAGETS VOTE
Nature vs Nurture. Both.
Continuity vs Stages. Stages.
In Piagets views, she thought cognitive development consisted in four stages.
Sensorimotor. It ranges from birth to two years. It is experiencing the world through senses and actions. The
developmental phenomenas are:
Object permanence, the understanding than an object continu