BIOLOGY 154 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Drug Injection, Condom, Shingles

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15 Sep 2016
Department
1 First Lecture
Definitions
Opportunistic infections
infections that occur more frequently and are more severe in individuals with weakened
immune systems
People with HIV obtain opportunistic infections
Pneumocystic Carinii Pneumonia (PCP)
present in all healthy people
many pathogens only make you ill when you are stressed, tired,
malnourished, fighting other diseases
Shingles
Candida
TB
Pneumonia
Prevalence vs. Incidence
Prevalence: percentage of population with the disease
indicates how widespread the disease is
how many people have it at a given time
Incidence: the number of people newly infected
incidence is going up and then as people become more educated about it and
start treating people, it goes down
HIV incidence plateaued in the US
High Risk Behaviors Today
unprotected sex
anal sex
any transfer of fluids
needle sharing (drugs)
Reasons for Differences Among Populations
1. Geography
a. less AIDS related deaths but higher infection rates in developed countries
b. more AIDS related deaths but
2. Culture
a. cultural norms
b. contraception seen as taboo
c. male dominated societies
3. Gender
Social impact of millions of orphans
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HIV Risk and Death from AIDS
AIDS
Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
acquired, not inherited
based on exposure to pathogen
immunodeficiency
all symptoms pointed to absence of functional immune system
syndrome
suite of symptoms or diseases
usually only seen in people with compromised immune systems
“opportunistic infections”
Definition of AIDS
Low T helper cell count (< 200/ml)
normally 1000
now considered to have AIDS even if no other symptoms
HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
Carpine Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV + means virus is in body
may be perfectly healthy (doesn’t mean you are sick) but you are still infectious
How Poverty and Illness Interrelate
HIV virus does not kill
allows opportunistic diseases (and cancers) to kill
common illnesses, normally controlled by immune system, can cause death without a
functioning immune system
poor people are not prepared
Relationship Between HIV and TB Incidence
TB is a disease of poverty
How Direct and Indirect Tests for HIV Differ
Direct Test
Isolate virus from their body
technically very difficult
often very little virus in blood
requires blood
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