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Lecture 2

BIOLOGY 321 Lecture 2: Lecture 2
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6 Pages
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Spring 2017

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 321
Professor
Dr.Drea
Lecture
2

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Primate Sexuality 1/19 Lecture 2
- Mammals, tree of life distinctions
o One major distinction:
Marsupials & monotrems
Eutherian, aka placental (the vast majority)
o Edentates: toothless mammals; many of the distinctions are based on teeth
o Four major clades of edentates
- Primate Shared Characteristics
o “primitive body plan”; common arboreal condition [shared among NON-
primates]:
long, flexible backbone
short flexible neck
5 fingered clinging hands and feet
many have tails
Distinguishing Primate Characteristics
- Generalized dental pattern; meaning they diet is not specialized, most are omnivores
- Evolution of diet: started adding in small vertebrates, then flowers and other similar
things, and the last specialization to develop was eating mature leaves
- Still having pentadactyly, but also opposable thumb
- Padded digits and palms; nails not claws; one of the earliest developments, evolved for a
sense of touch, greater sensitivity (there are some exception)
o Flat nails on the thumbs are the only defining feature that all primates have, even
for those that are exceptions in that they have claws
- Ulna and radius allow for palmar rotation
o Allows for swinging from tree to tree
- Clavicles unite arms to chest to facilitate hanging
- Forward facing eyes; this allows for depth perception and 3D vision; improvements in
acuity and tri-color color vision
o Greater definition in vision led to a lesser reliance on olfaction, reduction of snout
as well
- Skull expansion and increased brain complexity; also leads to longer gestation period
- Longer dependency period and juvenility; mothers therefore carry fewer young
- Male residencyboth sexes residing together throughout the year, not just during a
breeding period
o Increased social complexity, individual-centered society
Primate Taxonomy
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
(image from powerpoint made by Dr. Drea)
- 6 super families within the order of primates
o Prosimians the lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers split off relatively early from the rest
of the primates
- Classical classification separates prosimians (‘primitive’ grade) and simian (‘advanced’
grade) at a point between nodes
o Divided by bi-cornuate uterus in prosimians, single chambered uterus in simians
(like humans)
o In a bicornuate uterus, there can be litters of animals with two connecting
chambers, perhaps with three fetuses in each chamber
o Single chambered uterus able to happen because litters and offspring per mom
decreased
- Cladistic Classification: separates primate tree at a node, at which point lorises and
lemurs separate from the rest
o Strepsirrhines: “wet nose”, includes lemurs and lorises
o Happlorrhines: “dry nose”, includes tarsiers, new world monkeys, old world
monkeys, apes and humans
Prosimians
- Tend to be nocturnal, small, however they are diverse overall; 3 groups within this:
o Lemuriformes, lorisiformes, tarsiiformes
- The two sexes tend to be of similar size (sexual monomorphism); female dominated
o If there is a difference, males are bigger and have physical advantage (just
because of greater testosterone; likely energetics prevent them from getting too
big)
New World Anthropoids aka Platyrrhines
- Two families: cebidae and callitrichidae (although these are often separated quite
differently)
- Cebidae:
o Squirrel monkeys, organ-grinding monkeys, owl monkey (only nocturnal one of
these), spider monkey, alouattinae (howler monkeys)
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find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
Primate Sexuality 1/19 Lecture 2 - Mammals, tree of life distinctions o One major distinction:  Marsupials & monotrems  Eutherian, aka placental (the vast majority) o Edentates: toothless mammals; many of the distinctions are based on teeth o Four major clades of edentates - Primate Shared Characteristics o “primitive body plan”; common arboreal condition [shared among NON- primates]:  long, flexible backbone  short flexible neck  5 fingered clinging hands and feet  many have tails Distinguishing Primate Characteristics - Generalized dental pattern; meaning they diet is not specialized, most are omnivores - Evolution of diet: started adding in small vertebrates, then flowers and other similar things, and the last specialization to develop was eating mature leaves - Still having pentadactyly, but also opposable thumb - Padded digits and palms; nails not claws; one of the earliest developments, evolved for a sense of touch, greater sensitivity (there are some exception) o Flat nails on the thumbs are the only defining feature that all primates have, even for those that are exceptions in that they have claws - Ulna and radius allow for palmar rotation o Allows for swinging from tree to tree - Clavicles unite arms to chest to facilitate hanging - Forward facing eyes; this allows for depth perception and 3D vision; improvements in acuity and tri-color color vision o Greater definition in vision led to a lesser reliance on olfaction, reduction of snout as well - Skull expansion and increased brain complexity; also leads to longer gestation period - Longer dependency period and juvenility; mothers therefore carry fewer young - Male residency—both sexes residing together throughout the year, not just during a breeding period o Increased social complexity, individual-centered society Primate Taxonomy (image from powerpoint made by Dr. Drea) - 6 super families within the order of primates o Prosimians – the lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers split off relatively early from the rest of the primates - Classical classification separates prosimians (‘primitive’ grade) and simian (‘advanced’ grade) at a point between nodes o Divided by bi-cornuate uterus in prosimians, single chambered uterus in simians (like humans) o In a bicornuate uterus, there can be litters of animals with two connecting chambers, perhaps with three fetuses in each chamber o Single chambered uterus able to happen because litters and offspring per mom decreased - Cladistic Classification: separates primate tree at a node, at which point lorises and lemurs separate from the rest o Strepsirrhines: “wet nose”, includes lemurs and lorises o Happlorrhines: “dry nose”, includes tarsiers, new world monkeys, old world monkeys, apes and humans Prosimians - Tend to be nocturnal, small, however they are diverse overall; 3 groups within this: o Lemuriformes, lorisiformes, tarsiiformes - The two sexes tend to be of similar size (sexual monomorphism); female dominated o If there is a difference, males are bigger and have physical advantage (just because of greater testosterone; likely energetics prevent them from getting too big) New World Anthropoids – aka Platyrrhines - Two families: cebidae and callitrichidae (although these are often separated quite differently) - Cebidae: o Squirrel monkeys, organ-grinding monkeys, owl monkey (only nocturnal one of these), spider monkey, alouattinae (howler monkeys) - Callitrichidae o Marmoset
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