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Lecture 4

BIOLOGY 321 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Cheirogaleidae, Simian, Hamadryas Baboon

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Primate Sexuality 1/24/17
Lecture 4
Review of Primate features
- Prehensile tail
- Pentadactyly
- Longer gestation
- Sexual dimorphism
- Etc.
- Prosimii vs anthropoidea
o Strepsirrhines and (wet nose) are alternative naming system that causes a change
in groups for one group
- Distribution of living (non-human) primates
o Generally equatorial, due to inability to survive in northern winters or deserts
- Prosimian Distribution
o Cheirogaleidae, lemuridae, indriidae, and daubentoniidae are restricted to Madagascar
All of these are endangered, but account for about 26% of primate diversity
o Lorisidae (lorises tend to be fast moving) are restricted to southeast asia and SSA
o the other family (tarsomething) became nocturnal
- Anthropoid primates
o Cebidae and callitrichidae: Known for their uniformity, all are arborial
o See slides for distribution of different families
- Habitats
o Generally founding in tropical or monsoon rainforest, swamp mangroves, gallery
forests, and savannah
Few live in grasslands, baboons included, but are very territorial
Niche Differentiation
- The niche characterizes every member of the species that belongs to that species
- Allows coexisting of species by partitioning the habitat to eliminate competition
1. Habitat
a. Vegetation type (tropical rainforest, etc.)
b. Stratification (floor, understory, canopy, or emergent layer of the forest)
i. Understory and canopy are the most used layers, this is also where the
most food and fruit is present
ii. Emergent layer puts primates at risk from flying predators
c. Range use
i. Species with overlapping ranges are known as sympatric species,
allopatric if non-overlapping
ii. Sympatric increases competition
2. Diet/Feeding strategies
a. Primarily omnivorous, so they tend to have non-specific dentition
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b. However, many other types of diets present including gramnivore (grain-eating),
insectivore, etc.
3. Activity patterns
a. Diurnal vs. nocturnal
i. Often characteristics of the species are different depending on diurnal vs
b. More unusual
i. Crepuscular: active at dawn and dusk
ii. Cathemeral: active at any time of the day
iii. Unusual because don’t have the diurnal or nocturnal specialization (like
color vision and forward facing eyes for diurnal species) which allows
species to thrive at certain time
iv. These two represent a “slice” in time of evolution—at a point in evolution
between the originally nocturnal primates to the diurnal
Cost Benfits of Activity Patterns
- Nocturnal
o Pros: decreased heat stress, predation, enhanced smell
o Cons: reduced foraging ability and social communication
- Diurnal
o Pros: better visual foraging and visual communication
o Cons: risk of predation, increased food competition, risk of heat stress
- Many differences related to sociality
Social Living
- More likely to have protection or individuals acting as guards; more eyes to look for
- Greater ability to find mates*
- More eyes to look for foodgreater access to food
- Assistance rearing young*
- *focus on these two
Social Organization
- In figure on powerpoint, females are white, have dotted line as territory; males have a
darker line as territory, are brown
- Noyau: the mother-infant unit, the most simple unit, with males having overlapping
- Polyandry: multimale, multifemale, all within one territory, age defined meaning at a
certain age members have to leave or they become a multimale group; this prevents
inbreeding by forcing the kids out at a certain age; known as age gradation
- Multimale group: all members in one group, one territory
- One-male group: male plus lots of females; extra males form their own band
- Hamadryas baboons
- Fission-fusion society
- Regulatory factors
o Permanence of contact: how long they stay together, how long they go away for
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